Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Vitamin D Supplementation and Cognition in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

Table 1

Participant characteristics.

Low dose ()High dose ()Total ()

Sex
 Male1 (6.7%)4 (27%)5 (17%)
 Female14 (93%)11 (73%)25 (83%)
Mean age (SD)55.62 (10.14)55.80 (9.68)55.71 (9.74)
Mdn years of education (IQR)14 (12 – 15)14 (13 – 16)14 (13 – 15)
Race
 White5 (33%)4 (27%)9 (30%)
 Black or African American8 (53%)9 (60%)17 (57%)
 Asian01 (6.7%)1 (3.3%)
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander1 (6.7%)01 (3.3%)
 Multiracial1 (6.7%)1 (6.7%)2 (6.7%)
Ethnicity
 Not Hispanic or Latino10 (67%)13 (87%)23 (77%)
 Hispanic or Latino4 (27%)2 (13%)6 (20%)
 Unknown or not reported1 (6.7%)01 (3.3%)
Duration of diabetes
 <6 months2 (13%)02 (6.7%)
 6-12 months02 (13%)2 (6.7%)
 1-5 years2 (13%)2 (13%)4 (13%)
 5-10 years6 (40%)4 (27%)10 (33%)
 >10 years5 (33%)7 (47%)12 (40%)
Mdn vitamin D levels in ng/mL (IQR)
 Total vitamin D
  Baseline21 (15 – 25)25 (19 – 28)24 (17 – 27)
  Week 1327 (23 – 32)53 (49 – 64)42 (27 – 53)
 Serum vitamin D3 (25 OH-D)
  Baseline21 (13 – 25)24 (18 – 28)22 (16 – 27)
  Week 1327 (23 – 32)53 (49 – 64)42 (27 – 53)
Mean body mass index (SD)40.44 (9.48)34.20 (5.05)37.32 (8.11)
Marital status
 Currently married10 (67%)4 (27%)14 (47%)
 Separated01 (6.7%)1 (3.3%)
 Widowed2 (13%)02 (6.7%)
 Divorced2 (13%)5 (33%)7 (23%)
 Never married1 (6.7%)5 (33%)6 (20%)
Season of first dose
 Fall5 (33%)5 (33%)10 (33%)
 Winter3 (20%)6 (40%)9 (30%)
 Spring5 (33%)1 (6.7%)6 (20%)
 Summer2 (13%)3 (20%)5 (17%)
Mean vitals (SD)
 Systolic blood pressure134.73 (16.33)131.13 (16.95)132.93 (16.45)
 Diastolic blood pressure73.47 (10.99)72.93 (10.79)73.20 (10.70)
 Heart rate73.27 (12.67)76.00 (12.86)74.63 (12.62)
Mdn laboratory values (IQR)
 HBA1C (mmol/mol)
  Baseline7.10 (6.30 – 7.50)7.20 (6.20 – 7.80)7.15 (6.30 – 7.70)
  Week 13 ()7.10 (6.30 – 7.70)6.90 (6.00 – 8.60)7.10 (6.20 – 7.70)
 Glucose (mmol/L)
  Baseline120 (95 – 160)142 (116 – 214)134 (107 – 165)
  Week 13126 (98 – 138)128 (100 – 195)127 (100 – 160)
 Creatinine (mg/dL)
  Baseline0.74 (0.66 – 0.90)0.83 (0.70 – 0.88)0.79 (0.69 – 0.88)
  Week 130.78 (0.68 – 0.81)0.80 (0.68 – 0.92)0.79 (0.68 – 0.87)
 Calcium (mg/dL)
  Baseline9.40 (9.30 – 9.60)9.60 (9.40 – 9.90)9.50 (9.30 – 9.70)
  Week 139.50 (9.20 – 9.70)9.70 (9.40 – 9.90)9.50 (9.40 – 9.80)
Godin activity level
 Insufficiently active5 (33%)6 (40%)11 (37%)
 Moderately active3 (20%)3 (20%)6 (20%)
 Active7 (47%)6 (40%)13 (43%)
Mdn WRAT-4 Reading -score (IQR)-1.00 (-1.20 to -0.33)-0.93 (-1.20 to -0.20)-0.97 (-1.20 to -0.33)
Mdn PHQ-9 score (IQR)2 (1 – 4)4 (3 – 7)3 (2 – 5)
Mean CES-D score (SD)7.13 (3.46)9.73 (4.80)8.43 (4.32)

Note: unless otherwise stated, valid for all demographics. SD = standard deviation of the mean. Mdn = median. IQR = interquartile range. ng/mL = nanograms per milliliter. PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire 9. CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.