Table 2: Ethnic comparison of insulin responses.

Insulin response by ethnicity
BA > WENo significant ethnic differenceBA < WE

Models based on fasting measures (HOMA%B)[41] (NGT and IFG)
[58]
[37] (IFG/IGT)[32] (T2D)
[36] (IFG/IGT)

Cumulative (fasting)2253954709

Oral nutrient stimulation[34]
[50]
[48]
[40] (NGT)
[42]
[35]
[55]
[44] (NGT and IGT)
[28] (in obese only)
[26] (BA > WE at 30 mins, but no difference in total iAUC)
[31]
[40] (IGT and T2D)
[59]
[60]
[27]
[36] (IFG/IGT)
[37] (IFG/IGT)
[38] (T2D)
[30] (T2D)
[28] (in lean only)
[29]
[24]
[25]

Cumulative (oral)4541206833

IV glucose stimulation[63]
[39] (NGT and IGT)
[64] (second-phase response only)
[65]
[49]
[59]
[43] (NGT and IGT)
[60]
[27]
[54]
[33]
[58]
[46] (NGT and IGT)
[45] (NGT and IGT)
[62]
[36] (IFG/IGT)
[47] (NGT, IGT, and T2D)
[37] (IFG/IGT)
[38] (T2D)
[53]
[51]
[44] (NGT and IGT)
[61]
[30] (T2D)[25]

Cumulative (IV)44613418

NGT and nondiabetic subjects, unless otherwise specified. Cumulative fasting, oral, and IV refer to the total number of participants (BA and WE) in the studies using fasting measures, oral nutrient stimulation, and intravenous glucose stimulation techniques, respectively (note that each study may be presented in more than one category). BA: black African; WE: white European; NGT: normal glucose tolerance; IFG: impaired fasting glucose; IGT: impaired glucose tolerance; T2D: type 2 diabetes.