Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Sleep-Disordered Breathing Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Outpatients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Table 1

Baseline characteristics.


Age (years)
Sex, male (n (%))412 (60.7%)
AHI/h
Metabolic parameters
Waist circumference (cm)
BMI (kg/m2)
Systolic BP (mmHg)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)
HDL (mg/dl)
Triglycerides (mg/dl)
Duration of DM2 (years)
HbA1c (%)
 (mmol/mol)
HOMA index
Medication N (%)
 Antihypertensive medication
  Antihypertensive medication altogether547 (81%)
  ACE inhibitor280 (41%)
  Angiotensin receptor blocker164 (24%)
  Renin inhibitor3 (<1%)
  Calcium channel blocker191 (28%)
  Beta-blocker322 (47%)
  Diuretics267 (39%)
 Fat metabolism
  HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor318 (47%)
 Diabetes medication
  Antidiabetic agents altogether575 (85%)
  Biguanide459 (68%)
  Incretin153 (23%)
  Sulfonylurea127 (19%)
  Glinide26 (4%)
  Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor9 (1%)
  Exenatide6 (1%)
  Insulin181 (27%)

Results are provided as deviation or (%). AHI: apnea-hypopnea index; BMI: body mass index; BP: blood pressure; HbA1c: haemoglobin A1c; HOMA: Homeostasis Model Assessment (fasting, use of long-acting insulin); DM2: diabetes mellitus type 2; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; 413 patients included.

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