Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Predictors of Diabetic Foot Reulceration beneath the Hallux

Table 2

Differences between the risk factors for hallux reulceration.

( patients)Hallux reulceration ()Nonhallux reulceration () valueEffect size

Male/female8 (88.9)/1 (11)39 (83)/8 (17)0.658−0.059a
Mean age (years)0.7120.057b
Duration of DM (years)0.072−0.314b
Type 1/type 2 DM0 (0)/9 (100)13 (28)/34 (72)0.0720.241a
Body mass index (kg/m2)0.0300.404b
Nephropathy3 (33)12 (25)0.6280.065a
Retinopathy4 (44)25 (53)0.630−0.064a
HbA1c (mmol/mol) (%)0.599−0.207b
Ankle brachial index0.2540.242b
Hallux deformity3 (33)11 (23)0.5290.084a
 Hallux valgus110
 Metatarsal prominence08
 Hallux hammertoe22
First MTPJ ROM (degrees)0.734−0.064b
First MTPJ ROMw-b (degrees)0.041−0.422b
Functional hallux limitus7 (78)11 (23)0.0010.428a
Hallux rigidus4 (44)18 (38)0.7290.046a
Ankle ROM (degrees)0.1290.279b
Inversion ROM (degrees)0.6970.074b
Eversion ROM (degrees)0.411−0.083b
FPI0.1250.230b
Tibiotalar angle X-ray0.9020.021b
Tibiocalcaneal angle X-ray0.4330.143b
Talocalcaneal angle X-ray0.403−0.121b
Talar declination angle X-ray0.3970.156b
Calcaneal inclination angle X-ray0.114−0.254b
First metatarsal declination angle X-ray0.024−0.350b

Abbreviations: HbA1c: glycated hemoglobin; ROM: range of motion; first MTPJ ROM: range of dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in the resting position; first MTPJ ROMw-b: range of dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joints in the weight-bearing position; FPI: Foot Posture Index. The “nonhallux reulceration” group of patients included other locations of reulceration and patients who did not develop a new ulcer during the follow-up. a (%) for categorical variables; the phi coefficient was used for the chi-square test: representing effect size values of 0.01 as small effect, 0.30 as medium effect, and 0.50 as large effect. b for normally distributed variables; for independent samples, Student’s -test; effect size as the Cohen’s : representing effect size as small effect, >0.5 as moderate effect, and >0.8 as large effect; is positive if the mean difference is in the predicted direction.

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