Table 2: Main drugs and molecules which may have a role against IHD using ion channels as therapeutic target.

DrugBiological effectsFunctions

SulphonylureasAntagonist of the SUR subunit of pancreatic β-cell KATPPromotion of β-cell depolarization and insulin secretion

Pinacidil and cromakalimKir6.2/SUR2A KATP and Kir6.2/SUR2B KATP channel openers(i) Arteriole resistance reduction
(ii) Arterial blood pressure reduction
(iii) Vasodilatation

NicorandilNitrate-like and proangiogenetic effect, calcium channel blocker, M2 macrophage polarization stimulator, M1 macrophage polarization inhibitor, and NF-κB p65 subunit inhibitor(i) Prevention of ventricular arrhythmias in patients who underwent coronary angioplasty after acute myocardial infarction
(ii) Reduction of macrophage phagocytic activity, ROS and cytokine production, and improvement of mitochondrial membrane stability and Bcl-2/Bax ratio
(iii) Promotion of endothelial reconstitution
(iv) Improvement of the prognosis of patients with stable angina

LevosimendanmBKCa-channel activator and calcium sensitizer, KATP activator(i) Heart pump function improvement and reduction of the risk to develop arrhythmic events after myocardial ischemia
(ii) Vasodilatation and increase in CBF

Isosteviol sodiumROS scavenger(i) Inhibition of QTc prolongation related to ischemia/reperfusion injury and reduction of Ikr and Ikatp channel inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion injury

N-3-PUFACoronary BKCa channel activation, Ca2+ concentration in coronary smooth muscle cell reduction(i) Vasodilation and increase in CBF

NOX inhibitorROS reduction

Nrf-2 activatorCatalase and erythrocyte SOD activity induction in vivo
Vitamin EAntioxidant activity