Distinct Effects of Carrageenan and High-Fat Consumption on the Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Nonobese and Obese Models of Type 2 Diabetes
Macrophage activation in the liver and adipose tissue following carrageenan and high-fat exposures. (a) The mRNA expression of F4/80 in the hepatic tissue of the mice showed marked increases in this marker of activated macrophages following carrageenan or HFD and a greater increase following their combination (, ). In contrast, there was no increase in F4/80 expression in the adipose tissue following carrageenan exposure. (b–e) Confocal images show increase in the F4/80-labeled macrophages following carrageenan or HFD vs. control (green staining). The combination of CGN and HFD markedly increased the F4/80 immunostaining of the activated macrophages. Scale μm. CGN = carrageenan.