Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Effect of the Interaction between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Lipoprotein(a) on Insulin Resistance: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

Table 1

Characteristics of participants by AHI quartiles.

Events/hQuartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4P for trend
AHI ≤ 77 < AHI ≤ 2828 < AHI ≤ 57AHI > 57

N1,0531,0311,0171,051
Age (years)37.0 (30.0, 47.0)42.0 (33.0, 53.0)44.0 (35.0, 55.0)40.0 (33.0, 49.0)<0.001
Male (%)638 (60.6%)812 (78.8%)896 (88.1%)959 (91.2%)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.8 (21.8, 25.9)25.7 (23.7, 27.7)26.6 (24.9, 28.7)28.6 (26.5, 31.0)<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.90 (0.85, 0.94)0.94 (0.90, 0.97)0.95 (0.92, 0.99)0.97 (0.94, 1.00)<0.001
SBP (mmHg)120 (111, 125)120 (114, 130)125 (118, 135)126 (120, 137)<0.001
DBP (mmHg)78 (70, 85)80 (70, 85)80 (74, 87)80 (77, 90)<0.001
MAP (mmHg)91.7 (84.3, 95.0)93.3 (86.3, 99.3)94.3 (89.0, 102.3)96.7 (91.0, 104.7)<0.001
AHI (events/h)2.2 (0.8, 4.2)16.2 (11.0, 21.5)42.5 (34.8, 49.7)70.3 (63.7, 79.1)<0.001
Lp(a) (mg/dL)7.83 (4.10, 16.80)7.40 (3.90, 14.26)7.90 (4.18, 16.20)6.50 (3.46, 13.10)<0.001
FBG (mmol/L)5.03 (4.69, 5.33)5.16 (4.84, 5.55)5.31 (4.96, 5.79)5.48 (5.10, 6.10)<0.001
FSI (IU/mL)7.5 (5.2, 6.1)9.8 (6.6, 14.4)11.0 (7.4, 16.2)14.6 (10.1, 20.4)<0.001
HOMA-IR1.63 (1.11, 2.48)2.27 (1.40, 3.38)2.62 (1.75, 4.10)3.63 (2.44, 5.35)<0.001
Insulin resistance (%)169 (16.0%)334 (32.4%)424 (41.7%)668 (63.6%)<0.001
TC (mmol/L)4.35 (3.76, 4.95)4.60 (4.05, 5.22)4.77 (4.20, 5.34)4.85 (4.29, 5.48)<0.001
TG (mmol/L)1.13 (0.76, 1.61)1.50 (1.05, 2.16)1.62 (1.15, 2.30)1.83 (1.34, 2.71)<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.66 (2.14, 3.20)2.92 (2.43, 3.42)3.00 (2.50, 3.51)3.12 (2.59, 3.68)<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.10 (0.96, 1.30)1.04 (0.91, 1.20)1.02 (0.90, 1.17)1.00 (0.87, 1.13)<0.001
ApoA-I (g/L)1.10 (0.97, 1.24)1.06 (0.95, 1.21)1.07 (0.96, 1.20)1.06 (0.96, 1.19)<0.001
ApoB (g/L)0.74 (0.63, 0.86)0.81 (0.71, 0.94)0.84 (0.74, 0.96)0.87 (0.76, 0.99)<0.001
Current smoker (%)135 (12.8%)203 (19.7%)237 (23.3%)239 (22.7%)<0.001
Current drinker (%)106 (10.1%)127 (12.3%)153 (15.0%)166 (15.8%)<0.001

BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; MAP: mean arterial pressure; AHI: apnea-hypopnea index; FBG: fast blood glucose; FSI: fast serum insulin; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; TC: total cholesterol; TG: total triglyceride; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Insulin resistance: HOMA-IR > 3.0.

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