Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Effect of the Interaction between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Lipoprotein(a) on Insulin Resistance: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

Table 4

Characteristics of participants by Lp(a) quartiles.

mg/dLQuartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4P for trend
Lp(a) ≤ 3.903.90 < Lp(a) ≤ 7.407.41 < Lp(a) ≤ 15.10Lp(a) > 15.10

N1,0261,0621,0321,032
Age (years)39.0 (32.0, 49.0)40.0 (33.0, 51.0)42.0 (33.0, 53.0)42.0 (34.0, 53.0)<0.001
Male (%)842 (82.1%)854 (80.4%)819 (79.4%)790 (76.6%)0.002
BMI (kg/m2)26.5 (24.1, 29.4)26.4 (23.9, 29.1)26.2 (24.0, 28.4)25.7 (23.8, 28.4)<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.95 (0.90, 0.98)0.94 (0.90, 0.98)0.94 (0.90, 0.98)0.94 (0.90, 0.98)0.045
SBP (mmHg)123 (117, 134)120 (115, 130)122 (116, 132)120 (115, 131)0.061
DBP (mmHg)80 (73, 86)80 (72, 85)80 (73, 86)80 (71, 85)0.043
MAP (mmHg)93.3 (88.0, 101.7)93.3 (87.7, 99.8)93.3 (88.0, 101.3)93.3 (86.7, 100.0)0.041
AHI (events/h)31.3 (8.4, 62.2)28.4 (7.3, 58.6)26.6 (7.3, 55.9)26.3 (5.9, 53.1)<0.001
Lp(a) (mg/dL)2.50 (1.70, 3.20)5.50 (4.60, 6.40)10.40 (8.80, 12.40)25.10 (19.50, 36.78)<0.001
FBG (mmol/L)5.28 (4.90, 5.73)5.24 (4.90, 5.72)5.22 (4.88, 5.68)5.18 (4.87, 5.62)<0.001
FSI (IU/mL)11.2 (7.4, 17.2)10.7 (7.0, 16.1)10.0 (6.7, 15.3)9.7 (6.6, 14.6)<0.001
HOMA-IR2.74 (1.65, 4.25)2.53 (1.58, 3.91)2.34 (1.50, 3.80)2.22 (1.49, 3.50)<0.001
Insulin resistance (%)456 (44.4%)427 (40.2%)371 (35.9%)341 (33.0%)<0.001
TC (mmol/L)4.54 (3.98, 5.18)4.57 (4.00, 5.22)4.66 (4.08, 5.29)4.79 (4.22, 5.34)<0.001
TG (mmol/L)1.68 (1.09, 2.48)1.57 (1.05, 2.29)1.45 (1.04, 2.00)1.41 (1.01, 2.01)<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.79 (2.27, 3.35)2.88 (2.36, 3.40)2.97 (2.47, 3.51)3.06 (2.59, 3.56)<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.03 (0.89, 1.18)1.02 (0.90, 1.18)1.04 (0.91, 1.20)1.06 (0.93, 1.23)0.002
ApoA-I (g/L)1.07 (0.95, 1.21)1.07 (0.96, 1.20)1.07 (0.96, 1.21)1.09 (0.97, 1.23)0.415
ApoB (g/L)0.79 (0.68, 0.93)0.81 ± 0.180.83 (0.72, 0.95)0.85 (0.75, 0.98)<0.001
Current smoking (%)205 (20.2%)205 (19.3%)228 (22.1%)176 (17.1%)0.280
Current drinking (%)129 (12.6%)147 (13.8%)148 (14.3%)128 (12.4%)0.993

BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; MAP: mean arterial pressure; AHI: apnea-hypopnea index; FBG: fast blood glucose; FSI: fast serum insulin; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; TC: total cholesterol; TG: total triglyceride; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Insulin resistance: HOMA-IR > 3.0.

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