Journal of Diabetes Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Perceived Stress and Adherence to the Dietary Recommendations and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 1 Diabetes

Table 3

The multivariable association between perceived stress and diet score.

Low stressModerate stressLow stressHigh stressStress score
Mean (95 Wald CI)Mean (95 Wald CI)Mean (95 Wald CI)Mean (95 Wald CI) (95% Wald CI)

Diet score11.5 (10.3–12.7)10.0 (9.2–10.9)0.05611.3 (10.0–12.5)9.1 (7.8–10.3)0.016-0.10 (-0.16–-0.05)0.001
Components of the diet score
 Fish1.2 (0.9–1.5)0.8 (0.6–1.0)0.0681.2 (0.9–1.5)0.7 (0.4–0.9)0.018-0.02 (-0.03–-0.01)0.029
 Fresh vegetables1.3 (1.0–1.6)0.8 (0.5–1.0)0.0031.3 (1.0–1.6)0.8 (0.5–1.1)0.010-0.02 (-0.03–-0.01)0.021
 Cooked vegetables1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.5611.2 (0.8–1.6)1.1 (0.7–1.5)0.7610.00 (-0.02–0.02)0.844
 Fruits and berries0.9 (0.6–1.2)0.7 (0.5–0.9)0.4610.9 (0.6–1.3)0.7 (0.4–1.1)0.467-0.01 (-0.02–0.01)0.488
 Sweet pastry1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.5 (1.3–1.7)0.0831.1 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.590-0.01 (-0.02–0.01)0.622
 Sweets and chocolate0.9 (0.5–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.2)0.6550.8 (0.4–1.1)0.8 (0.5–1.1)0.894-0.01 (-0.02–0.01)0.403
 Soft drinks1.0 (0.7–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.9461.0 (0.7–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.2)0.6920.00 (-0.01–0.02)0.922
 Low-fat liquid milk products0.8 (0.5–1.1)0.5 (0.3–0.7)0.1430.8 (0.5–1.1)0.3 (0.0–0.6)0.014-0.02 (-0.03–-0.01)0.012
 Vegetable oil spreads0.8 (0.4–1.2)0.9 (0.6–1.2)0.6830.7 (0.3–1.1)0.8 (0.4–1.2)0.866-0.01 (-0.02–0.01)0.593
 Vegetable oil cooking fats1.8 (1.4–2.1)1.5 (1.3–1.7)0.2201.8 (1.5–2.1)1.3 (1.0–1.6)0.033-0.03 (-0.04–-0.01)0.001
 Salt0.6 (0.3–0.9)0.4 (0.2–0.6)0.3660.5 (0.3–0.8)0.4 (0.2–0.7)0.674-0.01 (-0.02–0.01)0.476

Generalized linear regression analysis. CI: confidence interval. All models are adjusted for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and BMI. Low stress: 1st quartile of the perceived stress scale; moderate stress: 2nd and 3rd quartiles of the perceived stress scale; high stress: 4th quartile of the perceived stress scale.