At 95% level of significance, Mann-Whitney test (nonparametric data) and 2 independent-samples -testa (parametric data) assessed the difference between groups. Data expressed as mean. A value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. , , and . The significant values were labeled by m, g, and h for the nontherapeutic subgroup (NT) versus metformin (MET), glimepiride (GLIM), and healthy control (HC), respectively. : number; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus.