Generation and confirmation of the conditional knockout mice for the β subunit of GGTase-1. (a) The strategy for creating Pggt1bflox mice. In homologous recombinant vectors (donor vectors), exon 3 of Pggt1b is flanked by loxP sites (arrowheads). The expression of Cre recombinase results in the excision of exon 3, creating a frameshift mutation and a null allele. The locations of primers for genotyping are indicated. (b) The plasmid map of homologous recombinant vectors (donor vectors). (c) Analysis of different genotypes by different sizes of PCR product fragments. Pggt1bflox/flox: one band with 400 bp; Pggt1bflox/+: two bands with 334 bp and 400 bp; wild type: one band with 334 bp. (d) GGTase-1 conditional knockout was confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot in different tissues from Pggt1bΔ/Δ mice.