Table 2: Effect of bilinear material model ( is curved radius).

Small deformation (LD OFF), bilinear materialLarge deformation (LD ON), bilinear material
Curved modelCurved model
Sharp model Sharp model
= 0.125 = 0.25 = 0.375 = 0.125 = 0.25 = 0.375

Effective stiffness before yielding (N/mm)2252.391603.791210.29964.292218.721578.071237.70937.69
Yield load (N)12.363.862.902.6911.453.732.922.69
Effective stiffness after yielding (N/mm)9.0520.9015.4813.82−199.98−38.21−27.25−17.96