Creating and Implementing an Effective and Deterrent National Cyber Security StrategyRead the full article
Journal of Engineering publishes research in several areas of engineering, including chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and mechanical engineering.
Chief Editor, Professor Wang, is the Vice Deputy Dean of the School of Aerospace Engineering at Tsinghua University.
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Sustainable and Dynamic Competitiveness towards Technological Leadership of Industry 4.0: Implications for East African Community
The war to technology and economic powers has been the driver for industrialization in most developed countries. The first industrial revolution (industry 1.0) earned millions for textile mill owners, while the second industrial revolution (industry 2.0) opened the way for tycoons and captains of industry such as Henry Ford, John D. Rockefeller, and J.P. Morgan. The third industrial revolution (industry 3.0) engendered technology giants such as Apple and Microsoft and made magnates of men such as Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. Now, the race for the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0) is on and there is no option, and every country whether developed or developing must participate. Many countries have positively responded to industry 4.0 by developing strategic initiatives to strengthen industry 4.0 implementation. Unlocking the country’s potential to industry 4.0 has been of interest to researchers in the recent past. However, the extent to which industry 4.0 initiatives are being launched globally has never been divulged. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring industry 4.0 initiatives through a comprehensive electronic survey of the literature to estimate the extent of their launching in different regions. Inferences were drawn from industry 4.0 initiatives in developed nations to be used as the recommendations for the East African Community. Results of the survey revealed that 117 industry 4.0 initiatives have been launched in 56 countries worldwide consisting of five regions: Europe (37%), North America (28%), Asia and Oceania (17%), Latin America and the Caribbean (10%), and Middle East and Africa (8%). The worldwide percentage was estimated as 25%. This revealed that there is a big gap existing between countries in the race for industry 4.0.
Learning Feature Fusion in Deep Learning-Based Object Detector
Object detection in real images is a challenging problem in computer vision. Despite several advancements in detection and recognition techniques, robust and accurate localization of interesting objects in images from real-life scenarios remains unsolved because of the difficulties posed by intraclass and interclass variations, occlusion, lightning, and scale changes at different levels. In this work, we present an object detection framework by learning-based fusion of handcrafted features with deep features. Deep features characterize different regions of interest in a testing image with a rich set of statistical features. Our hypothesis is to reinforce these features with handcrafted features by learning the optimal fusion during network training. Our detection framework is based on the recent version of YOLO object detection architecture. Experimental evaluation on PASCAL-VOC and MS-COCO datasets achieved the detection rate increase of 11.4% and 1.9% on the mAP scale in comparison with the YOLO version-3 detector (Redmon and Farhadi 2018). An important step in the proposed learning-based feature fusion strategy is to correctly identify the layer feeding in new features. The present work shows a qualitative approach to identify the best layer for fusion and design steps for feeding in the additional feature sets in convolutional network-based detectors.
PVDF Piezoelectric Sensors for Seeds Counting and Coulter Clogging Detection in Sowing Process Monitoring
The paper presents the results of a test on the use of piezoelectric sensors made of PVDF foil for counting grain and checking clogging in the sowing drill. The tests were carried out in a simulator of the sowing drill with the use of a measuring system with high input impedance. Two kinds of barley and triticale grains were investigated. Measurements were carried out for different feeding frequencies. On the basis of the signals recorded, an algorithm of counting the sown grain was developed and tested. The algorithm is based on signal statistic comparison in adjacent windows. The developed algorithm allows counting more than 90% of the sown grains.
SHPB Testing and Analysis of Bedded Shale under Active Confining Pressure
Shale gas is the most important new energy source in the field of energy, and its exploitation is very important. The research on the dynamic mechanical properties of shale is the premise of exploitation. To study the dynamic mechanical properties of shale from the Changning-Weiyuan area of Sichuan Province, China, under confining pressure, we used a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test system with an active containment device to carry out dynamic compression tests on shale with different bedding angles. (1) With active confining pressure, the shale experiences a high strain rate, and its stress-strain curve exhibits obvious plastic deformation. (2) For the same impact pressure, the peak stress of shale describes a U-shaped curve with an increasing bedding angle; besides, the peak stress of shale with different bedding angles increases linearly with rising confining pressure. The strain rate shows a significant confining pressure enhancement effect. With active confining pressure, the peak strain gradually decreases as the bedding angle increases. (3) As a result of the influence of different bedding angles, the dynamic elastic modulus of shale has obvious anisotropic characteristics. Shale with different bedding angles exhibits different rates of increase in the dynamic elastic modulus with rising confining pressure, which may be related to differences in the development of planes of weakness in the shale. The results of this study improve our understanding of the behavior of bedded shale under stress.
Conventional Construction and 3D Printing: A Comparison Study on Material Cost in Jordan
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a procedure used to create 3D objects in which consecutive layers of a material are computer-controlled produced. Such objects can be constructed in any shape using digital model data. First, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the advances in 3D printing processes of construction. Then, the architectural, economical, environmental, and structural features of 3D printing are introduced. Examples of 3D printed structures are presented, and the construction challenges facing Jordan, that encouraged this study, are stated. Finally, a precise description regarding the impact of 3D printing is provided by comparing conventional construction data of Ras Alain Multipurpose Hall in Jordan and the expected data if the same building has been built using 3D printing. The suggested model is generated using Revit software. As a result of this study, an understanding of 3D printing procedure, mechanism of action, and its impact on the future of construction and architecture through economical, structural, and environmental parameters is achieved. This leads to encourage engineers and contractors to take this subject into account for construction in Jordan.
Effects of Factors That Influence Out-of-Plane Lateral-Torsional Buckling on Freestanding Circular Arches
This paper presents the effects of the several factors that influence lateral-torsional buckling on freestanding circular arches. The studied factors that attribute to the effects of lateral-torsional buckling include cross section type, included angle, slender ratio, imperfection, loading, and boundary conditions. From the reviewed studies, the misrepresentation of these factors to a certain extent may yield inaccurate results. Several studies and design codes have proposed different solutions to account for these factors in designs against lateral-torsional buckling for some structural elements. However, there were no studies reported on the out-of-plane lateral-torsional buckling of fixed circular arches made of structural aluminum channel sections subjected to central concentrated load. Therefore, there is a need for further research on the lateral-torsional buckling real behavior of fixed circular arches of structural aluminum channels.