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Journal of Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 278075, 10 pages
Research Article

Modeling and Optimization for Production of Rice Husk Activated Carbon and Adsorption of Phenol

1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria
2Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria
3Department of Textile Science and Technology, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria

Received 8 August 2014; Revised 6 December 2014; Accepted 8 December 2014; Published 24 December 2014

Academic Editor: Sreekanth Pannala

Copyright © 2014 Y. S. Mohammad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Modeling of adsorption process establishes mathematical relationship between the interacting process variables and process optimization is important in determining the values of factors for which the response is at maximum. In this paper, response surface methodology was employed for the modeling and optimization of adsorption of phenol onto rice husk activated carbon. Among the action variables considered are activated carbon pretreatment temperature, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of phenol, while the response variables are removal efficiency and adsorption capacity. Regression analysis was used to analyze the models developed. The outcome of this research showed that 99.79% and 99.81% of the variations in removal efficiency and adsorption capacity, respectively, are attributed to the three process variables considered, that is, pretreatment temperature, adsorbent dosage, and initial phenol concentration. Therefore, the models can be used to predict the interaction of the process variables. Optimization tests showed that the optimum operating conditions for the adsorption process occurred at initial solute concentration of 40.61 mg/L, pretreatment temperature of 441.46°C, adsorbent dosage 4 g, adsorption capacity of 0.9595 mg/g, and removal efficiency of 97.16%. These optimum operating conditions were experimentally validated.