Journal of Engineering / 2017 / Article / Fig 5

Research Article

Membrane Fouling and Chemical Cleaning in Three Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis Plants Producing Demineralized Water

Figure 5

Fouling characterization from membrane and spacer samples from three RO locations studied. From (a)–(d), polysaccharides and proteins, total organic carbon, adenosine triphosphate, and colony-forming units on R2A agar.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

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