Journal of Engineering / 2020 / Article / Tab 8

Review Article

Industry 4.0 Disruption and Its Neologisms in Major Industrial Sectors: A State of the Art

Table 8

Industry 4.0 technology applications in healthcare.

S/NTechnologyApplicationsReferences

13D printingSurgery: surgical marking guide, implant placement guide, radiation shield, and surgical saw guide[429434]
MERT: patient education[429, 430, 432, 435]
MDE: implants (metallic implants, tracheal splint; cranial implants), tissue and organ manufacturing (organ on chips), scaffold manufacturing, respiratory apparatus (ventilators), PPE (face mask and shield), prosthetics and orthotics (e.g., knee replacement; nasal stent; hearing aid cases), and active and wearable devices (wearable sensors, lab on a chip, and microfluidics)[428432, 434, 436440]
Medical imaging: anatomical modeling, organoids, e.g., 3D-printed model of coronavirus[428, 430, 431, 433, 434, 437, 439]
PDDD: construction of oral dosage medications, pills or drug printing, tables, drug-delivery implants, and transdermal delivery[430432, 437, 439, 440]
Dentistry[431, 432, 437, 439]

2AIDDPPPT: prediction and treatment of diseases such as stroke and cancer[122, 441446]
Medical imaging[442, 443, 447]
Monitoring: patient care, diabetes care, eye care, and adult care or wellbeing[442444, 446, 448]
Surgery[442]
MERT: virtual assistant for patients[442, 443, 448]
MDE: AI-based wearables[442]
PDDD: for discovery of a new class of diagnostics and treatment[442, 443, 445, 446, 448]

3ARMERT: medical education and training[449455]
Monitoring: wellness (adult care)[453, 455458]
DDPPPT: rehabilitation, diagnosis, and prediction[458, 459]
TMR: information (telemedicine)[449451, 453, 459]
Surgery: surgical planning, surgical navigation, and surgical rehearsal[450, 451, 453, 454, 457, 458, 460]
Medical imaging: anatomical imaging[451]

4Big dataMedical imaging[461, 462]
Monitoring: real-time monitoring[461463]
DDPPPT: treatment (precision medicine)[122, 461469]
TMR: patient care (patient drug history, clinical trials, and medical records) and medical data management[461, 463465, 468]
MERT: clinical research[465]
PDDD: drug discovery and design[463, 464]
HFMPO: fraud detection in healthcare facilities and workflow process optimization[463, 465]

5BlockchainDDPPPT: medical data privacy and security, medical fraud detection, diagnosis, and prescription tracking[470473]
TMR: electronic health record (EHR) modification, medical data management (patient-centred), personal health records (PHRs), and medication regimen[403, 470480]
HFMPO: independent medical reviews, claim and billing management, control of contracts for healthcare service, healthcare delivery, drug tracing, tracking and verification, drug supply chain management[471473, 478, 481, 482]
MERT: clinical and neuroscience research, education of medical staff[471, 478, 481]
Monitoring: blockchain for 5G-enabled IoT[483]

6Cloud computingTMR: teleconsultation, EHRs, PHRs, patient-centred[484487]
Monitoring: fitness and wellness monitoring[488]
HFMPO: patient assignment scheduling, clinical operation, and workflow optimization[488, 489]
DDPPPT: treatment of disease (stroke), therapy[487, 490]
Medical imaging[487, 488]

7DronesHFMPO: transportation of medical goods (medications, vaccines, biological samples, medical devices, tissue, patient), healthcare delivery and pick-up services, emergency response (transport of blood and plasma), deployment of networks for data harvesting in unconnected areas[491496]
DDPPPT: disease prevention (sterile mosquito release for vector control), public health disaster relief (disaster prediction and management, detection of harmful substances)[492, 496]
TMR: telemedicine[492]
MERT: health research[496]

8IoTMonitoring: homecare (IoT-based information system), caring and monitoring of patients, Internet of Health Things (IoHT), wearable Internet of things (WIoT)[422, 424, 497499]
MDE: Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) (IoT in implantable and wearable devices)[422, 500]
DDPPPT: Internet of nano-Things (IoNT) (IoT in nanomedicine for diagnostics, treatment, preventive health, chronic care disease management, and follow-up care)[422]
TMR: Internet of mobile-health Things (m-IoT) (remote monitoring of patients), wearable Internet of Things (WIoT)[414, 422, 501, 502]

9NanotechnologyMDE: biodegradable and bioactive sutures and dressings, drug-eluting stents and scaffolds, cell production, nanobiosensors[503505]
DDPPPT: gene therapy, diagnosis, cancer treatments[503506]
Surgery[505]
PDDD: drug delivery, drug coating, and encapsulation[503]

10RoboticsTMR: tele-healthcare[507]
Surgery[508511]
Monitoring: care and wellness[511]
DDPPPT: diagnosis and rehabilitation[508, 511]
MERT: training[511]

11SimulationHFMPO: operation process improvement and optimization, resource planning, emergency room efficiency improvement[512517]
MERT: clinical or midwifery education and training, clinical research[515, 518523]

12Synthetic biologyPDDD: drug development, vaccine, biopolymer vaccines, antimalaria, antibiotics, drug delivery (caveospheres), antimicrobial agents: engineered phages (viruses)[524528]
DDPPPT: gene therapy (bacteria cells), e.g., chromosome-free cell or SimCells, DNA assembly, transplantation, and recombination, genome editing, diagnostics, biologics and biodetection, metabolomics[524, 527532]
MDE: implant (wound care), new biosensors and smart microdevices and nanodevices, re-engineered antibodies and cellular therapeutics for cancer, T-cells, CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) technology, theragnostic cell lines, artificial enzymes, making neurons, regenerative medicine, cybernetic systems[524, 526528, 531533]
Medical imaging: biomarker[528, 532]

MERT: medical education, research and training, MDE: medical devices and equipment, PDDD: pharmaceuticals, drug delivery and discovery, DDPPPT: detection, diagnosis, prediction, prognosis, prevention and treatment, TMR: telemedicine and medical record, and HFMPO: healthcare facility management and process optimization.

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