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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 108687, 8 pages
Review Article

Two Integrator Loop Filters: Generation Using NAM Expansion and Review

Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering , Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt

Received 5 August 2009; Accepted 28 November 2009

Academic Editor: Mohamad Sawan

Copyright © 2010 Ahmed M. Soliman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM) expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII) or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII) or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC); six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.