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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering publishes recent advances from the rapidly moving fields of both electrical engineering and computer engineering in the areas of circuits and systems, communications, power systems and signal processing.
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Intelligent Integrated Approach for Voltage Balancing Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Predictive Models
In this paper, an intelligent integrated approach is proposed to control the reactive power and restore the voltage balance in a three-phase power system using particle swarm optimization (PSO), Gaussian process regression (GPR), and support vector machine (SVM). The PSO algorithm is used in offline mode to determine the optimal set of firing angles for the thyristor-controlled-reactor (TCR) compensator according to the smallest fitness value required for voltage balancing. The optimum firing angles are then used to train the GPR and SVM regression models. The GPR and SVM models are finally used as a real-time controller to retrieve the voltage balance in online mode. A simulation model and experimental setup of the electrical power system are built. The modeled system consists of a 500 km long transmission line. The line is divided into three-pi sections to guarantee a real system response. Several simulation and practical case studies have been conducted to test and validate the capability of the proposed integrated approach in solving the voltage unbalance problem. The results have revealed the supreme ability of the proposed integrated approach to restore the voltage balance quickly (within 20 ms) and for a wide range of voltage unbalance factors (VUFs) (3.90–8.42%).
The Relevance of Open Data Principles for the Web of Data
Open data has been improving both publishing platforms and the consumers-oriented process over the years, providing better openness policies and transparency. Although organizations have tried to open their data, the enrichment of their resources through the Web of Data has been decreasing. Linked data has been suffering from notable difficulties in different stages of its life cycle, becoming over the years less attractive to users. According to that, we decided to explore how the lack of some opening requirements affects the decline of the Web of Data. This paper presents the Web of Data radiography, analyzing the governmental domain as a case study. The results indicate that it is necessary to strengthen the data opening process to improve resource enrichment on the Web and have better datasets. These improvements describe that open data must be public, accessible (in machine-readable formats), described (use of robust, granular metadata), reusable (made available under an open license), complete (published in primary forms), and timely (preserve the value of the data). The implementation of these characteristics would enhance the availability and reuse of datasets. Besides, organizations must understand that opening and enriching their data require a completely new approach, and they have to pay special attention and control to this project, generally by putting money, the commitment by management at all levels, and lots of time. On the contrary, given the magnitude of availability and reuse problems identified in the opening and enrichment data process, it is believed that the Web of Data model would inevitably lose the interest it aroused at the beginning if not addressed immediately by data quality, openness, and enrichment issues. Besides, its use would be restricted to a few particular niches or would even disappear altogether.
Lithium-Ion Battery State-of-Health Estimation Method Using Isobaric Energy Analysis and PSO-LSTM
The precise estimation of the state of health (SOH) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is one of the core problems for battery management systems. To address the problem that it is difficult to accurately evaluate SOH because of the LIB capacity regeneration phenomenon, this paper proposes an approach for LIB SOH estimation using isobaric energy analysis and improved long short-term memory neural network (LSTM NN). Specifically, at first, the isobaric energy curve is plotted by analyzing the battery energy variation during the constant current charging stage. Then, the mean peak value of the isobaric energy curve is extracted as a health factor to characterize the battery SOH aging. Eventually, the LIB SOH estimation model is developed using the improved LSTM NN. In this regard, the improved LSTM NN refers to the selection of the number of hidden layers and the learning rate of the LSTM NN using the particle swarm algorithm (PSO). To verify the precision of the proposed method, validation experiments are performed based on four battery aging data with different charging multipliers. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can effectively estimate the LIB SOH. Meanwhile, the proposed method is compared with other conventional machine learning algorithms, which demonstrates that the proposed method has better estimation performance.
Sensor Array System Based on Electronic Nose to Detect Borax in Meatballs with Artificial Neural Network
The categorization of odors utilizing gas sensor arrays with various meatball borax concentrations has been studied. The samples included meatballs with a borax content of 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, and 0.25% (%mm) and meatballs without any borax. Six TGS gas sensors with a baseline of 10 seconds, a detecting period of 120 seconds, and a purging period of 250 seconds make up the gas sensor array used in this work. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and principal component analysis (PCA), which are beneficial for feature extraction and classification, are used to handle the collected data based on machine learning approaches. Two models were produced by the data analysis: model 1, which only used the PCA approach, and model 2, which only used the ANN methodology. 90.33% is the total variance value of PC from model 1. In addition, the multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN-MLP) technique for model 2 yielded accuracy values of 95%.
Comprehensive Overview of Modern Controllers for Synchronous Reluctance Motor
Synchronous reluctance motor drives (SynRMs) are the best promising machines utilized in modern industries and electric vehicles, according to the current study. Research on new SynRMs drive systems has increased as a result. This review article disseminates the most recent developments in these technologies’ design, modeling, and controlling. First, a simple comparison between the main motor technologies and SynRMs is made. To aid researchers in selecting the appropriate motor controller for their motor drive systems, the most common motor control approaches are examined and classed.
Regular Vehicle Spatial Distribution Estimation Based on Machine Learning
For the mixed traffic flow, obtaining the distribution of connected vehicles (CVs) and regular vehicles (RVs) is of great significance for road network analysis and cooperative control in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). However, whether it is based on fixed sensors or based on CVs and traffic mechanism to estimate the spatial distribution of RVs, the implementation complexity and low estimation accuracy are the points that need to be improved. This paper proposes a regular vehicle spatial distribution estimation method using adjacent connected vehicles as mobile sensors. First, to investigate the hidden relationship between the interaction information of adjacent CVs and the spatial distribution of RVs among CVs, the Gaussian mixture model-hidden Markov model (GMM-HMM) is selected as the identification method. Then, three sets of experiments were designed to study the influence of observed features on the identification capability of the model, generalization capability validation, and comparison with other methods, respectively. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the dataset generated by the car-following model. The experimental results show that selecting the relative position and time headway as observed features can effectively reflect the regular vehicle spatial distribution between adjacent CVs. The average accuracy of the proposed method to identify the regular vehicle spatial distribution is over 93.7%, which can provide valuable suggestions for the Internet of Vehicles application.