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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2010, Article ID 584594, 5 pages
Research Article

On the Error Rate Analysis of Dual-Hop Amplify-and-Forward Relaying in Generalized-K Fading Channels

1Department of Digital Systems, University of Piraeus, 80 Karaoli and Dimitriou Street, Piraeus 18534, Greece
2Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA

Received 30 November 2009; Accepted 5 March 2010

Academic Editor: Nikos Sagias

Copyright © 2010 George P. Efthymoglou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We present novel and easy-to-evaluate expressions for the error rate performance of cooperative dual-hop relaying with maximal ratio combining operating over independent generalized- 𝐾 fading channels. For this system, it is hard to obtain a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination, even for the case of a single dual-hop relay link. Therefore, we employ two different upper bound approximations for the output SNR, of which one is based on the minimum SNR of the two hops for each dual-hop relay link and the other is based on the geometric mean of the SNRs of the two hops. Lower bounds for the symbol and bit error rates for a variety of digital modulations can then be evaluated using the MGF-based approach. The final expressions are useful in the performance evaluation of amplify-and-forward relaying in a generalized composite radio environment.