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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 908234, 10 pages
Research Article

Characterization of Hardware Impairments in Multiple Antenna Systems for DoA Estimation

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Gestionale e Meccanica, Università degli Studi di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy

Received 25 July 2011; Accepted 12 September 2011

Academic Editor: Nikos Sagias

Copyright © 2011 Daniele Inserra and Andrea M. Tonello. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We consider the effects introduced by hardware impairments on the estimation of the direction of arrival (DoA) deploying a multiple antenna radio system. We derive a system model from experimental measurements of a state-of-the-art hardware test bed based on an RF direct-conversion architecture. The system model includes DC offsets, carrier frequency and phase offsets, and the phase noise. Then, we propose a simple digital compensation algorithm of the impairments for bidimensional DoA estimation (azimuth and elevation) with a 3D orthogonal linear array. The robustness of the algorithm in terms of minimum-mean-squared error as a function of the hardware impairments is evaluated and compared with that achieved using the root-MUSIC algorithm.