Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 246742, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/246742
Research Article

Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy

Received 3 April 2013; Accepted 10 July 2013

Academic Editor: Mohamad Sawan

Copyright © 2013 Antonio Buonomo and Alessandro Lo Schiavo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Kurokawa, “Some basic characteristics of broadband negative resistance oscillator circuits,” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 48, pp. 1937–1955, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 351–357, 1946. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “Modelling and analysis of differential VCOs,” International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 117–131, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “On the perturbation analysis of the limit cycle in oscillators with shifting bias,” International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 353–369, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  5. X. Lai and J. Roychowdhury, “Analytical equations for predicting injection locking in LC and ring oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC '05), pp. 454–457, September 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. J. Paciorek, “Injection locking of oscillators,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1723–1727, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. B. Razavi, “A study of injection locking and pulling in oscillators,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1415–1424, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Mirzaei, M. E. Heidari, R. Bagheri, S. Chehrazi, and A. A. Abidi, “The quadrature LC oscillator: a complete portrait based on injection locking,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1916–1932, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Verma, H. R. Rategh, and T. H. Lee, “A unified model for injection-locked frequency dividers,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1015–1027, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. R. Rategh and T. H. Lee, “Superharmonic injection-locked frequency dividers,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 813–821, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Sengupta, T. K. Bhattacharyya, and H. Hashemi, “A nonlinear transient analysis of regenerative frequency dividers,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 2646–2660, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “Analytical approach to the study of injection-locked frequency dividers,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 51–62, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “Nonlinear dynamics of divide-by-two injection-locked frequency dividers in locked operation mode,” International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. F. Ramírez, M. E. de Cos, and A. Suárez, “Nonlinear analysis tools for the optimized design of harmonic-injection dividers,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1752–1762, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Ebrahimi, H. Miar Naimi, and H. Adrang, “Remarks on transient amplitude analysis of MOS cross-coupled oscillators,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 231–239, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Buonomo, M. P. Kennedy, and A. Lo Schiavo, “On the synchronization condition for superharmonic coupled QVCOs,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 1637–1646, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “On the theory of quadrature oscillations obtained through parallel LC-VCOs,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2509–2519, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. K. Magierowski and S. Zukotynski, “CMOS LC-oscillator phase-noise analysis using nonlinear models,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 664–677, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “Modeling, analysis and experimental validation of frequency dividers with direct injection,” Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2013, Article ID 365692, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Buonomo and A. Lo Schiavo, “Finding the tuning curve of a CMOS—LC VCO,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 887–891, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Armand, “On the output spectrum of unlocked driven oscillators,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 798–799, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. I. Ali, A. Banerjee, A. Mukherjee, and B. N. Biswas, “Study of injection locking with amplitude perturbation and its effect on pulling of oscillator,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 137–147, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus