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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 190586, 14 pages
Research Article

Energy-Aware Base Stations: The Effect of Planning, Management, and Femto Layers

1Computer Engineering and Telecommunications, University of Thessaly, 38221 Volos, Greece
2School of Science and Technology, International Hellenic University, Thermi, Greece
3DIET Department, University of Roma-La Sapienza, Via Eudossiana 18, Rome, Italy
4Mobile Communications Department, Eurecom, Sophia Antipolis, 450 Route des Chappes, 06410 Biot, France
5Telecommunication Networks Group, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy

Received 21 October 2013; Accepted 3 January 2014; Published 30 March 2014

Academic Editor: Vincenzo Eramo

Copyright © 2014 G. Koutitas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We compare the performance of three base station management schemes on three different network topologies. In addition, we explore the effect of offloading traffic to heterogeneous femtocell layer upon energy savings taking into account the increase of base station switch-off time intervals. Fairness between mobile operator and femtocell owners is maintained since current femtocell technologies present flat power consumption curves with respect to served traffic. We model two different user-to-femtocell association rules in order to capture realistic and maximum gains from the heterogeneous network. To provide accurate findings and a holistic overview of the techniques, we explore a real urban district where channel estimations and power control are modeled using deterministic algorithms. Finally, we explore energy efficiency metrics that capture savings in the mobile network operator, the required watts per user and watts per bitrate. It is found that the newly established pseudo distributed management scheme is the most preferable solution for practical implementations and together with the femotcell layer the network can handle dynamic load control that is regarded as the basic element of future demand response programs.