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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 4721849, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4721849
Research Article

Face Spoof Attack Recognition Using Discriminative Image Patches

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy

Received 3 December 2015; Revised 12 March 2016; Accepted 14 April 2016

Academic Editor: Kwok-Wai Cheung

Copyright © 2016 Zahid Akhtar and Gian Luca Foresti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Face recognition systems are now being used in many applications such as border crossings, banks, and mobile payments. The wide scale deployment of facial recognition systems has attracted intensive attention to the reliability of face biometrics against spoof attacks, where a photo, a video, or a 3D mask of a genuine user’s face can be used to gain illegitimate access to facilities or services. Though several face antispoofing or liveness detection methods (which determine at the time of capture whether a face is live or spoof) have been proposed, the issue is still unsolved due to difficulty in finding discriminative and computationally inexpensive features and methods for spoof attacks. In addition, existing techniques use whole face image or complete video for liveness detection. However, often certain face regions (video frames) are redundant or correspond to the clutter in the image (video), thus leading generally to low performances. Therefore, we propose seven novel methods to find discriminative image patches, which we define as regions that are salient, instrumental, and class-specific. Four well-known classifiers, namely, support vector machine (SVM), Naive-Bayes, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), and Ensemble, are then used to distinguish between genuine and spoof faces using a voting based scheme. Experimental analysis on two publicly available databases (Idiap REPLAY-ATTACK and CASIA-FASD) shows promising results compared to existing works.