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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 5067313, 15 pages
Research Article

Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Psychoacoustic Model with Self-Synchronization

1School of Information Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
2Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, 131 Moo 5, Tiwanon Rd., Bangkadi, Muang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
3National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand

Received 28 June 2016; Revised 13 September 2016; Accepted 24 October 2016

Academic Editor: Kai Wang

Copyright © 2016 Jessada Karnjana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper proposes a blind, inaudible, and robust audio watermarking scheme based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and the psychoacoustic model 1 (ISO/IEC 11172-3). In this work, SSA is used to analyze the host signals and to extract the singular spectra. A watermark is embedded into the host signals by modifying the singular spectra which are in the convex part of the singular spectrum curve so that this part becomes concave. This modification certainly affects the inaudibility and robustness properties of the watermarking scheme. To satisfy both properties, the modified part of the singular spectrum is determined by a novel parameter selection method based on the psychoacoustic model. The test results showed that the proposed scheme achieves not only inaudibility and robustness but also blindness. In addition, this work showed that the extraction process of a variant of the proposed scheme can extract the watermark without assuming to know the frame positions in advance and without embedding additional synchronization code into the audio content.