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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 6390741, 9 pages
Research Article

Improving Robustness of Biometric Identity Determination with Digital Watermarking

Physiological Signal Analysis Team, Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Received 17 June 2016; Revised 7 September 2016; Accepted 5 October 2016

Academic Editor: Isao Echizen

Copyright © 2016 Juha Partala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The determination of an identity from noisy biometric measurements is a continuing challenge. In many applications, such as identity-based encryption, the identity needs to be known with virtually 100% certainty. The determination of identities with such precision from face images taken under a wide range of natural situations is still an unsolved problem. We propose a digital watermarking based method to aid face recognizers to tackle this problem in applications. In particular, we suggest embedding multiple face dependent watermarks into an image to serve as expert knowledge on the corresponding identities to identity-based schemes. This knowledge could originate, for example, from the tagging of those people on a social network. In our proposal, a single payload consists of a correction vector that can be added to the extracted biometric template to compile a nearly noiseless identity. It also supports the removal of a person from the image. If a particular face is censored, the corresponding identity is also removed. Based on our experiments, our method is robust against JPEG compression, image filtering, and occlusion and enables a reliable determination of an identity without side information.