Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Distance Traveled and Cross-State Commuting to Opioid Treatment Programs in the United States

Table 1

Opioid treatment program and patient characteristics.


Program Variables ( )
 USA Region
 Beale urbanicity
  Metro Area >1 million53
  ≥250 K and <1 million29
  <250 K18
 ZIP code square miles4013410<11,186
 Number of patients sampled27534715521,947

Patient variables ( )
 Miles traveled to OTP15237<1200
 ZIP code square miles388913<15,031
  African american9
 First methadone treatment50
 Pain a reason for treatment34
 Strong urge to use85
 Severe withdrawal71
 Prescription opioid use past 30 days73
 Heroin use past 30 days57