Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Distance Traveled and Cross-State Commuting to Opioid Treatment Programs in the United States

Table 1

Opioid treatment program and patient characteristics.

%MeanSDMedianMinimumMaximum

Program Variables ( )
 USA Region
  Northeast25
  Southeast38
  Midwest17
  West20
 Beale urbanicity
  Metro Area >1 million53
  ≥250 K and <1 million29
  <250 K18
 ZIP code square miles4013410<11,186
 Number of patients sampled27534715521,947

Patient variables ( )
 Miles traveled to OTP15237<1200
 ZIP code square miles388913<15,031
 Age
  18–2943
  30–4333
  44–8124
 Male60
 Race/ethnicity
  African american9
  Hispanic11
  White77
  Other3
 Employed44
 First methadone treatment50
 Pain a reason for treatment34
 Strong urge to use85
 Severe withdrawal71
 Prescription opioid use past 30 days73
 Heroin use past 30 days57