Table 1: Summary of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults.

StudyAge/% of Hispanic participantsTheoryDesign & sampleMeasuresInterventionDurationSalient findings

Albright et al. [34];
Collins et al. [54]
18–66 years; 70% Mexican American/Latino womenTranstheoretical ModelTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; 𝑁 = 7 2 Knowledge; perceived barriers to exercise; self-efficacy for PA; social support for exercise; motivational readiness for PA; processes of change; decisional balance; 7-day PA recall; acculturation; BMI; CVD risk factorsEight 1-hour weekly behavioral skill building sessions; focused on overcoming barriers, setting short-term goals, and developing a PA program; cultural tailored curriculum including ethnically matched health educators; home-based randomized trial began after the series of classes and included either mail support or ongoing PA counseling via telephone and mail (14 calls over 10 months)8 weeks then 10 monthsAfter preintervention 8-week preparatory course, there was a significant increase in knowledge, perceived social support, walking minutes per week, and total cognitive and behavioral processes ( 𝑃 < . 0 1 ). After 10 months of a home-based intervention, women in the phone + mail counseling condition had a significantly greater increase in estimated total energy expenditure compared to women in the support condition ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 )

Avila & Hovell [45]40–44 yearsNot mentionedTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; 𝑁 = 4 4 Attitudes; beliefs; knowledge of exercise; MVPA; BMI; BP; glucose; cholesterol; waist/hip circumference; 1-mile walk and estimated VO2 maxEight 1-hour sessions consisting of self-change behavioral modification; assistance from an assigned buddy (social support); stretching and walking component (led for 20 mins. of walking during each session) conducted by bicultural Spanish speaking physician8 weeksStatistically significant ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 ) decrease compared to control group for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and cholesterol; significant increases ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 ) for VO2 max, exercise rate frequency, self-efficacy, fitness level, and knowledge

Bopp et al. [36]Mean age = 42.5 years (SD = 12.1); 81.1% of Mexican descentNot mentionedThree-group RCT (2 intervention, 1 comparison); 𝑁 = 5 0 Process evaluation outcomes; PA knowledge; height; weight; program barriers; activity awarenessFaithful Footsteps Program; Faith-based physical activity intervention; culturally and spiritually relevant educational materials and activities developed promoting the health benefits of PA; team-based walking contest to promote social support for PA; health “fiesta” provided hands-on educational opportunities for PA8 week66% of participants identified health reasons for participating in PA (compared to 36%); 47% accurately described PA recommendations (versus 16%)

Castenada et al. [27]Mean age = 66 years; all Hispanic, Caribbean descent (84–90%)Not mentionedTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; over 55 years; type 2 diabetes; 𝑁 = 6 2 Glycemic and metabolic control; BMI; WHR; % body fat; 7-day PA recall; muscle strength with 1RMStructured 45 mins. exercise session 3 times/week; progressively increased intensity16 weeksLeisure and household physical activity levels significantly improved in intervention group 𝑃 < . 0 0 1 ); improved glycemic control, decreased diabetes medications

Castro et al. [44]24–55 years; 45.3% HispanicSelf-management modelTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; 𝑁 = 5 3 PA minutes per week; barriers, enjoyment; self-efficacy; social supportWalking program with one session per week; participants given written materials and health and weekly phone counseling sessions; focusing on informational control, education, social support, motivation, problem-solving, and improving self-efficacy6 weeksAt 5-month followup, PA, barriers, enjoyment, and self-efficacy were not significant; increase in social support was significant ( 𝑃 < . 0 1 ); both conditions increased walking minutes per week ( 𝑃 < . 0 0 1 )

Chen et al. [42]23–54 years; 44.5% Hispanic womenSocial cognitive theoryTwo group by three repeated measures quasiexperimental design (randomized to comparison or treatment); 𝑁 = 1 2 8 Self-reported walking; subsample-used accelerometersHome-based behavioral intervention to promote walking; intervention group received six phone calls (20–30 mins.) with counseling versus educational phone calls intended to increase self-efficacy, assess barriers, problem solve to promote social support8 weeksBoth conditions increased self-reported walking at the 2 months after test( 𝑃 < . 8 8 ), with mean change of 86 and 81 mins./week for behavioral and educational group, respectively

Grass et al. [38]18–55 years; 72% Hispanic womenNot mentionedNonexperimental-repeated measures design; 𝑁 = 1 3 0 PA minutes per week; PA barriersParticipatory action research; four sessions over 3 months of “walking clubs”; family focused to influence social support; written materials in English and Spanish3 monthsNo significance in PA; PA barriers significance ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 )

Hayashi et al. [33]40–64 years; 100% Hispanic WomenTranstheoretical modelRCT at 4 sites; lower income under or uninsured; at risk for CVD; 𝑁 = 8 6 9 Stage of readiness questionnaire; cholesterol, BP, BMI, coronary heart disease risk; PA level/ intensity/barrierWisewoman; delivered by community health workers who were bilingual and bicultural; focused on health behavior counseling3 lifestyle sessions (30–45 mins.)Improvement in PA readiness for change in 68% of intervention group; achieving a high degree of improvement in PA was twice as likely; improvement in estimated 10-year CHD risk

Hovell et al. [18]18–55 years; 100% Hispanic WomenOperant learning theoryTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; low income; sedentary immigrants; 𝑁 = 1 5 1 Physical activity; aerobic fitness VO2 max; height; weight; BP; glucose; insulin; lipid measurementsThree 90-minute sessions per week of supervised aerobic dance in a community setting; 5 : 1 participant to staff ratio; bilingual Aerobic instructor; 30-mins. of exercise/diet education after each session including culturally appropriate materials; problem-solve barriers; assigned exercise buddy6 monthsMore vigorous exercise and walking at posttest for intervention group ( 𝑃 < . 0 0 1 ); meeting ACSM guidelines increased from 19.1% to 63.2% in intervention group compared to control group (13.6% to 16.7%); sig increase in VO2 max ( 𝑃 < . 0 1 )

Ingram et al. [29]33–95 years; 100% HispanicGrounded theoryQualitative (focus groups); w/diabetes; 𝑁 = 2 0 Focus group explored themes related to self-efficacy and social support (conducted in Spanish)Animadora study; community-based intervention to promote walking; series of walking groups led by individuals who had demonstrated success and expressed desire to help others; met 3 times/week12 weeksSocial support expressed as commitment and companionship; walkers demonstrated a high level of self-efficacy for walking; development of group identity/social cohesion was a motivator to walk

Keele-Smith [41]18–59 years; staff and students at New Mexico University; 42% HispanicReversal theoryTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; 𝑁 = 1 4 9 PA frequency and duration; weight, body fat; exercise motivation; social supportParticipants given brochure highlighting general information about exercise; individualized-written exercise prescription developed based on baseline data; one-on-one weekly educational seminars 30–45 mins.; monitoring only group that received weekly phone calls5 weeksMore participants in intervention group were meeting PA recommendations; no significant differences in weight, body fat; consistent exercisers had significantly higher motivation scores than did inconsistent exercisers

Keller and Cantue [28]45–70 years; 100% Hispanic womenNot MentionedTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; women who were postmenopausal, obese, and sedentary; 𝑁 = 1 8 bioelectric impedance and BMI; anthropometric measures; total serum cholesterol; PAR; PA log; community/friend/family assessment for exercise survey; acculturation scaleCamina por Salud; clinical feasibility study designed to evaluate the effects of two frequencies of walking (3 versus 5 days/week); 30 minutes at the pace of a 20-minute mile (3.2-MET intensity36 weeksSignificiant differences in BMI reduction, ( 𝑃 = . 0 0 1 ); No significiant difference in anthropometric and blood lipid results; No significiant relationship between the mins. walked/week and acculturation or neighborhood characteristics. For Group I, there was a strong correlation between mins. walked and social support scores (r =.99, 𝑃 = . 0 4 )

Leeman-Castillo et al. [31]31–50 years; 100% HispanicSocial science theoryNonexperimental two-group-repeated measures design; Spanish & English speaking recruited ≥21 years; 𝑁 = 2 9 9 Self-report PALUCHAR; Community-based health kiosk program, English or Spanish; users receive personalized feedback from computerized role models that guide them in establishing goals; printout at the completion of the program includes personal program summary and referrals for local resources1-session; 2-month followup for risk assessmentSignificant increase in participants meeting PA recommendations in community setting (33% to 49%) and clinic setting (45% to 65%) at 2-month followup

Martyn-Nemeth et al. [3]30–65 years; 100% HispanicSocial ecological modelNonexperimental one-group-repeated measures design; w/type 2 diabetes; low income; 𝑁 = 1 6 Hemoglobin A1C, lipids, psychological well-being; BMI; daily exercise logCommunity-based, culturally designed exercise program through dance (60 mins.) received weekly exercise appointment cards12 weeks 80% of the reported becoming physically active at least 6 days per week or more; no significiant change in BMI; trend toward improved psychological well-being & diabetes measures

Mier et al. [37]Mean age = 32.4 years; 93.8% Mexico country of originTranstheoretical modelNonexperimental one-group-repeated measures design; 𝑁 = 1 6 Physical walking level; depressive symptoms; stress; BMISpanish handbook (Let’s Walk) developed to include information which was culturally appropriate used individualized problem-solving and self-management strategies; use of social support12 weeksSignificant differences for walking MET ( 𝑃 < . 0 2 ); level of depressive symptoms and stress were significantly reduced ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 )

Olvera et al. [30]28–48 years; 100% Hispanic mother-daughter pairsSocial cognitive theoryTwo-arm experimental design; lower income mother/daughter pairs; 𝑁 = 4 6 pairsAcculturation scale; BMI; shuttle run test or rockport walk test; accelerometers; SPAN survey; nonexercise PA ratingBounce; family-based program delivered in community and school settings; 3-week structured group aerobic, sport sessions, or free play recreational activities; 1-week behavioral counseling session12 weeksNo significiant differences in mother’s physical fitness or PA levels; no significiant differences in BMI; although daughters did exhibit significant changes in physical fitness and PA levels ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 )

Pekmezi et al. [32]18–65; 100% Hispanic womenTranstheoretical model; social cognitive theoryTwo-group-repeated measures RCT; low-income, acculturated, majority overweight/Obese; inactive; 𝑁 = 9 3 Self-report PA, 7-day PA recall; height, weight; social support; environmental access scale; CES-D scale; stage of changeSeamos activas; emphasized behavioral strategies such as goal-setting, monitoring, problem-solving, barriers, increasing social support, and rewarding oneself for meeting PA goals; monthly educational materials mailed based on individual-level-tailored feedback6 monthsMVPA increased from 16.56 mins./week to 147.27 min.; significiant increase in cognitive and behavioral processes of change ( 𝑃 < . 0 1 )

Poston et al. [39]Mean age = 39.2 years; 70% USA. born Hispanic womenSocial cognitive theoryRCT prospective block design (preestablished social groups); overweight or obese; 𝑁 = 2 6 9 7-day PAR; BMI; WHR; blood lipids; BP; social support; health locus of controlOne session per week for 12 months focused on influence of education, use of social support networks, dealing with negative influences, and restructuring personal environment; instructors were bilingual; bilingual materials; participated in 30 mins. of walking during the weekly meeting and walking clubs set up during the week12 monthsIntervention participants were not more active than controls at 6 or 12 months; no significant changes in BMI, PA recommendations, and blood lipids; significantly fewer participants who met the activity goal in the treatment group compared to wait-list control group at baseline (22% versus 25%)

Staten et al. [35]Mean age = 57.2 years; 74% Hispanic womenSocial cognitive theoryThree-group (interventions) randomized experimental design; uninsured over 50 years; 𝑁 = 2 1 7 BMI; WHR; cholesterol; glucose; activity frequency questionnaireOne group received provider counseling (PC) (active control); 2nd group received health education classes and a monthly newsletter as well as PC (PC + HE); 3rd group received all of the above and social support provided by community health workers (PC + HE + CHW); CHW were bilingual Hispanic women; CHW led bimonthly walks and encouraged participants to find walking partners, build social support12 monthsAll groups showed significant increase in MVPA with no significant differences between groups; BP decreased significiant among PC + HE + CHW ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 ) and PC + HE; no significiant change in BMI

Yan et al. [40]Mean age = 72.9 years; 50.5% HispanicTranstheoretical modelQuasiexperimental design (intervention and small wait-list comparison); over 50 years; sedentary; 𝑁 = 2 0 8 Participation rates; physical performanceActive start: 1 hour per week in a group setting to set goals, identify barriers, and establish social support system; after week 4, participants met 3 times/week for 45 mins.; exercises were performed to culturally preferred music; given safe exercises at home handout6 monthsSignificant improvements in fitness testing measures among intervention group, including Hispanics within this group ( 𝑃 < . 0 0 1 )