Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Trends in Roll-Your-Own Smoking: Findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey (2002–2008)

Table 2

Multivariate results of GEE analyses by country for predominant use of RYO compared to all other smoking patterns (factory-made cigarettes or “some” RYO).

CanadaUnited StatesUnited KingdomAustralia
ORCI 𝑃 valueORCI 𝑃 valueORCI 𝑃 valueORCI 𝑃 value

Wave (year).005.006.054.157
1 (2002)1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
2 (2003).99.87–1.12ns1.10.80–1.52ns1.04.99–1.11ns1.06.99–1.40ns
3 (2004).99.84–1.18ns1.12.73–1.73ns1.07.99–1.15ns1.09.99–1.20ns
4 (2005).97.79–1.20ns1.17.72–1.88ns1.09.99–1.19ns1.04.93–1.17ns
5 (2006).79.65–.97.0241.21.66–2.22ns1.191.07–1.33.0011.12.99–1.23ns
6 (2007).59.44–.79<.0012.081.37–3.15.0011.161.01–1.34.0351.05.92–1.20ns
7 (2008).57.37–.87.0101.91.87–4.20ns1.211.04–1.41.0141.10.94–1.29ns

Sex.875.020<.001<.001
Female1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
Male1.05.61–1.83ns2.151.13–4.10.0202.932.53–3.38<.0011.931.64–2.28<.001

Income<.001<.001<.001<.001
Low1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
Medium.64.42–.99.046.46.28–.78.004.89.72–1.07ns.80.70–.90<.001
High.16.06–.42<.001.16.09–.31<.001.70.58–.84<.001.55.46–.65<.001

Age (years).513.173.061.005
18–241.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
25–391.07.38–3.02ns1.47.88–2.45ns1.571.00–2.50.0481.17.94–1.46ns
40–541.31.42–4.02ns2.041.06–3.96.0341.641.07–2.53.0251.451.15–1.84.002
55+1.64.52–5.16ns1.14.57–2.28ns1.32.86–2.04ns1.28.98–1.68ns

Intend to quit.356.148.022.035
No1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
Yes.88.66–1.16ns2.01.78–5.19ns.88.79–.98.022.91.83–.99.035

HSI1.261.12–1.4<.001.99.86–1.16ns1.03.99–1.08ns1.041.01–1.08.019

No. of friends.99.90–1.07ns1.01.87–1.16ns.99.97–1.03ns1.02.99–1.04ns

*HIS: heaviness of smoking index, CI: 95% confidence interval, OR: adjusted odds ratio.

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