Table 1: Definitions of environmental characteristics assessed in audits of bicycling injury locations.


Traffic speed≤30 km/hr versus >30 km/hr estimated average vehicle speed.
Traffic volumeNumber of vehicles per hour; 3 categories: low (≤250 vehicles/hr); medium (250–749 vehicles/hr); high (≥750 vehicles/hr).
Bicyclist volumeNo bicyclists observed at location versus at least one bicyclist.
Path typeSidewalk, multiuse path (shared by bicyclists and pedestrians) with markings (e.g., center line, stencils), or without markings.
Path locationFor each side 3 categories: within 1 metre of roadway; between 1 and 3 metres; (3) >3 metres.
Path materialFor each side, continuous or slab concrete and bitumen (asphalt) versus gravel and grass.
Path/road slopeFlat versus moderate or steep slope (for each side of path).
Path/road conditionGood versus moderate, poor, or under repair (for each side of path).
Path obstructionsFor each side, presence of permanent obstructions (poles, signs, trees, benches, tables, fences) versus none.
Bike laneMarked designated bicycle lane on roadway versus no marked lane.
Roadway lanes1–3 lanes versus 4 or more lanes.
CurbFor each side 3 categories: mountable curb; nonmountable; no curb. Reference category was mountable curb.
Traffic control devicesPresence of traffic control devices (roundabout, speed bump, chicanes/chokers, lane narrowing, and signals) versus no traffic controls.
Crossing Presence of crossings (zebra, signals, bridge) versus no crossings.
Crossing aidsPresence of crossing aids (median, kerb extension) versus no crossing aids.
Other routesPresence of alternate routes (lanes, path through park, no through road) versus no alternate route.
IntersectionsPath-path and path-road intersection versus no intersection.
StreetlightsFor each side, presence of street lighting versus no street lights.
Lighting on pathFor each side, whether lighting covered the path or not.
DestinationsThe location provided access to services or other destinations (e.g., park, convenience store, businesses) versus no destinations.
SurveillanceLocation could be observed from ≥75% versus less than 75%.
MaintenanceLocation gardens and verges were >75% well maintained versus less than 75%.
Verge treesPresence of tress along the verge versus no trees.
Tree heightTall or medium sized trees versus small trees.
CleanlinessLocation is clean (free of debris, garbage, graffiti, etc.) versus some uncleanliness.
Natural featuresPresence of parks, green space, river, lakes, and so forth.
Path widthPath is 150 centimetres or less versus wider than 150 centimetres.
Age≤14 years old versus ≥15 years old.
Bicyclist speed (“speed”)<15 km/hr versus ≥15 km/hr.
Bicycling faster than usual (“riding fast”)Bicyclist reported “cycling faster than usual” at the time of the incident.
Peak timePeak time (Monday–Friday 06:31–08:30 and 16:01–18:00) versus off-peak time and weekends (Saturday and Sunday)