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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 835059, 10 pages
Review Article

A Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ochratoxin A Inhalational Exposure Associated with Human Illness and Kidney Disease including Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

1Environmental Medicine, 304 West Los Olivos Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105, USA
2American Indian Health and Services, 4141 State Street B-4, Santa Barbara, CA 93110, USA

Received 10 October 2011; Accepted 7 November 2011

Academic Editor: Margaret E. Sears

Copyright © 2012 Janette H. Hope and Bradley E. Hope. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in humans. Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness are also discussed, including cholestyramine, a bile-acid-binding resin used as a sequestrant to reduce the enterohepatic recirculation of OTA.