Table 1: Definitions of the tobacco control interventions.

Key questionIntervention definitionStudy design criteria

TaxationAny change in price or tax on cigarettes
Banning smoking in public placesPolicy or legislative change at the national, state, or community level that prohibits or restricts smoking in indoor environments. The target of the ban or restriction could include worksites, public places, and bars and/or restaurants. Smoking bans are classified as (1) complete when 100% smoke-free or no smoking allowed in any indoor area; (2) partial when smoking is restricted or limited to designated areas. We excluded smoking bans that were conducted among a specialized population, such as hospitalized patients, military recruits, or prisoners. While we did not include specific worksite smoking bans, we included studies conducted among specific workers if it evaluated a policy or legislative smoking ban(i) cluster randomized trial
(ii) longitudinal study
(iii) pre-/post- repeated cross-sectional study with a comparison group
(iv) pre-/post- repeated cross-sectional study without a comparison group*
(v) time series analysis

Banning advertising and sponsorshipBan or restriction on advertising or sponsorship, which may include television, radio, print, or internet advertising, point of purchase displays, product placement, and sponsorship of any type of event

Health warning labelsAny required changes to the packaging of tobacco products intended to disseminate health warnings or eliminate the use of terms implying a safer product (e.g., changes to graphic images or text of health warning labels or restrictions on the use of terms, such as “mild,” “low tar,” or “light”)

Mass media campaignsAny campaign intended to reduce tobacco use using “channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets, or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, which are not dependent on person-to-person contact” [108]

*Excluded from the mass media campaign review.