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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2013, Article ID 418742, 10 pages
Research Article

Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

1School of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, 17-3 Hoshigaoka-motomachi, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8662, Japan
2Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555, Japan
3Faculty of Education, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
4International Young Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567, Japan
5Department of Architecture, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi, Fukuoka 813-8503, Japan
6International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, Building 402, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
7School of Human Science & Environment, University of Hyogo, 1-1-12 Hon-cho, Shinzaike, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092, Japan
8Division of Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Kyoto Prefectural University, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan
9Department of Techno-Business Administration, Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555, Japan

Received 8 February 2013; Revised 4 June 2013; Accepted 4 June 2013

Academic Editor: David O. Carpenter

Copyright © 2013 Yoshihito Kurazumi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.