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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2013, Article ID 439490, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/439490
Research Article

Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

1Department of Chemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
2STAR Tutoring Center, Palomar Community College, San Marcos, CA 92069, USA

Received 30 September 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 3 April 2013

Academic Editor: Stephen Peckham

Copyright © 2013 Richard Sauerheber. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.