Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Corrigendum

A corrigendum for this article has been published. To view the corrigendum, please click here.

Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2013, Article ID 439490, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/439490
Research Article

Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

1Department of Chemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
2STAR Tutoring Center, Palomar Community College, San Marcos, CA 92069, USA

Received 30 September 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 3 April 2013

Academic Editor: Stephen Peckham

Copyright © 2013 Richard Sauerheber. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. Buck, The Grim Truth about Fluoridation, G.P. Putnam & Son, New York, NY, USA, 1964.
  2. M. Gleason, Ed., Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 3rd edition, 1969.
  3. J. B. Blakiston, Blakiston’s Medical Dictionary, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1960.
  4. The Merck Index, Merck, Rahway, NJ, USA, 1976.
  5. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Fluorine, Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorides, Department of Health Services, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
  6. R. Porter, Ed., The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA, 2012, http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/index.html.
  7. E. Lovering, “Letter response to inquiry,” 1963, Consumer Affairs Inquiries Section, Department of Health Education and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA.
  8. P. Connett, J. Beck, and H. S. Micklem, The Case against Fluoride, How Toxic Waste Ended up in our Drinking Water and the Bad Science and PolItics That Keep It There, Chelsea Green, White River Junction, VT, USA, 2010.
  9. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water. A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  10. G. Waldbott, “Incipient chronic fluoride intoxication from drinking water. II. Distinction between allergic reactions and drug intolerance,” International archives of allergy and applied immunology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 241–249, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Yiamouyiannis, Fluoride the Aging Factor, Health Action Press, Delaware, Ohio, USA, 1993.
  12. B. Spittle, 2001, Fluoride Fatigue, Paua Press, Paua, New Zealand, 2008, http://www.pauapress.com/fluoride/files/1418.pdf.
  13. “$750, 000.00 given in child’s death in fluoride case: boy 3 was in city clinic for routine cleaning,” 1979, New York Times, http://www.fluoridealert.org/articles/kennerly/.
  14. B. D. Gessner, M. Beller, J. P. Middaugh, and G. M. Whitford, “Acute fluoride poisoning from a public water system,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 330, no. 2, pp. 95–99, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Damkaer and D. Dey, “Evidence for fluoride effects on Salmon Passage at the John Jay Dam, Columbia River, 1982–1986,” North American Journal of Fisheries Management, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 154–162, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  16. L. Goodman and A. Gilman, Fluoride, the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, pp. 804-805, MacMillan, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 1975.
  17. D. R. Lide, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 88th edition, 2008.
  18. N. Teitz, Cinical Chemistry, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1976.
  19. F. Wang, D. Zhang, and R. Wang, “Toxic effects of fluoride on beating myocardial cells cultured in vitro,” Fluoride, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 26–32, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. Davidsohn and B. Wells, Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 13th edition, 1962.
  21. A. Burgstahler, “Personal communication,” Editor-in-Chief, Fluoride: Quarterly Journal of the International Society for Fluoride Research, University of Kansas, 2012.
  22. S. Ahmad, “Essentials of water treatment in hemodialysis,” Hemodialysis International, vol. 9, pp. 127–134, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. W. J. Moore, Physical Chemistry, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1965.
  24. R. Sauerheber and L. M. Gordon, “Calcium and membrane stability,” in The Role of Calcium in Biological Systems, Volume II, L. Anghileri and M. Tuffet-Anghileri, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  25. G. M. Whitford, F. C. Sampaio, C. S. Pinto, A. G. Maria, V. E. S. Cardoso, and M. A. R. Buzalaf, “Pharmacokinetics of ingested fluoride: lack of effect of chemical compound,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1037–1041, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. T. Petraborg, “Hydrofluorosis in the fluoridated Milwaukee area,” Fluoride, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 165–168, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. W. Grimbergen, “A double blind test for determination of intolerance to fluoridated water,” Fluoride, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 146–152, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Reddy, K. Reddy, and K. Kumar, “Neurodegenerative changes in different regions of brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of rats treated with sodium fluoride,” Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  29. L. Yuxin, G. Berenji, W. Shaba, B. Tafti, E. Yevdayev, and S. Dadparvar, “Association of vascular fluoride uptake with vascular calcification and coronary artery disease,” Nuclear Medicine Communications, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. E. Varol, S. Akcay, I. H. Ersoy, B. K. Koroglu, and S. Varol, “Impact of chronic fluorosis on left ventricular diastolic and global functions,” The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 11, pp. 2295–2298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Varol, S. Akcay, I. H. Ersoy, M. Ozaydin, B. K. Koroglu, and S. Varol, “Aortic elasticity is impaired in patients with endemic fluorosis,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 121–127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Y. Xu, “Electrocardiogram analysis of patients with skeletal fluorosis,” Fluoride, vol. 303, no. 1, pp. 16–18, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  33. T. Takamori, S. Miyanaga, S. Kawahara, H. Okushi, I. Hirao, and H. Wakatsuki, “EKG studies of inhabitants in high fluoride areas,” Tokushima Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 3, p. 50, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  34. B. Hileman, “New studies cast doubt on fluoridation benefits,” Chemical and Engineering News, vol. 67, no. 19, p. 66, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. P. S. Teotia and M. Teotia, “Dental caries: a disorder of high fluoride and low dietary calcium interactions (30 years of personal research),” Fluoride, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 59–66, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2001.
  37. U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Dockets Management, Petition FDA-2007-P-0346, Petition for Reconsideration, Non-personal supplements as appropriate, not for sale but for dissemination of information for public benefit, http://www.regulations.gov/#!searchResults,rpp=25,po=0,s=FDA%252B2007-P-0346,fp=true,dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO, Comments on NSF submitted by James R. Deal, January, 2012.
  38. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and Office of Drinking Water, 2000, Information Sheet Hexafluorosilicic Acid and Sodium Hexafluorosilicate (from freedom of information request, 2013).
  39. Federal Register, October, 1966 In: Horowitz, H. and Heifitz, S. April 1967 Public Health Reports 82:297–304, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1919981/.
  40. P. Sutton, “Fluoridation; errors and omissions in experimental trials,” in The Greatest Fraud: Fluoridation, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia; Kurunda, Lorne, Australia, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  41. A. K. Susheela, Fluorides in Drinking Water: Dental Fluorosis with Pits and Cracks, Scanning EM Observations, a Treatise on Fluorosis, Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation, Delhi, India, 3rd edition, 2007, http://www.fluorideandfluorosis.com/.
  42. W. F. Finney, E. Wilson, A. Callender, M. D. Morris, and L. W. Beck, “Reexamination of hexafluorosilicate hydrolysis by 19F NMR and pH measurement,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 2572–2577, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Barel, M. Calomme, A. Timchenko et al., “Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 297, no. 4, pp. 147–153, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  44. D. M. Musyimi, G. W. Netondo, and G. Ouma, “Effects of salinity on growth and photosynthesis of avocado seedlings,” International Journal of Botany, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. U. S. Health and Human Services, 2011, HHS and EPA announce new scientific assessments and actions on fluoride, http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2011pres/01/20110107a.html.
  46. D. Balog, “Fluoridation of public water systems: valid exercise of state police power or constitutional violation?” Pace University Environmental Law Review, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 645, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  47. NSF International Standard/American National Standard NSF/ANSI 60, “2009, Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals—Health Effects,” Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, Brief summary, http://www.nsf.org/business/water_distribution/pdf/NSF_Fact_Sheet.pdf.
  48. R. Arky, Physician's Desk Reference, Medical Economics Data Production Company, Montvale, NJ, USA, 48th edition, 1994.
  49. J. R. Lee, “Optimal fluoridation—the concept and its application to municipal water fluoridation,” Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 122, pp. 431–436, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  50. J. R. Graham and P. Morin, 1999, Highlights in North American Litigation during the Twentieth Century of Artificial Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies, http://www.law.fsu.edu/journals/landuse/vol142/graham-final2.pdf.
  51. FDA Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR31O. 545(a)(2) and (b).
  52. P. V. Caulart, “Canadian water providers ceasing artificial fluoridation,” Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine, July 2008 p. 38–41, http://www.esemag.com/.
  53. S. Thomas, “Rethinking the risks and benefits of fluoridation,” Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine, February 2013, Canada, http://cof-cof.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Sheldon-Thomas-Rethinking-The-Risks-And-Benefits-Of-Fluoridation-Environmental-Science-Engineering-Magazine-Jan-Feb-2013-OCR.pdf.
  54. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, B. Chen, and L. Chen, “Analysis of children’s serum fluoride levels in relation to intelligence scores in a high and low fluoride water village in Chin,” Fluoride, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 191–194, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. Abby Martin and RT News, 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqQkqZKBuV4.
  56. D. Kennedy, “Fluoridegate,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrWFnGpX9wY.
  57. S. Peckham, “Slaying sacred cows: is it time to pull the plug on water fluoridation?” Critical Public Health, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 159–177, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. J. A. Stevens, P. S. Corso, E. A. Finkelstein, and T. R. Miller, “The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults,” Injury Prevention, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 290–295, 2006. View at Google Scholar