Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 737926, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/737926
Review Article

A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, 12 rue du Val d’Osne, 94 415 Staint-Maurice, France

Received 4 January 2013; Revised 19 March 2013; Accepted 18 April 2013

Academic Editor: Marco Martuzzi

Copyright © 2013 Mathilde Pascal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Pascal, M. Stempfelet, S. Goria, J. L. Lasalle, M. Pascal, and C. Declercq, “Pollution atmosphérique et hospitalisations pour pathologies cardio-vasculaires et respiratoires, et pour cancers dans le secteur de l’Étang de Berre, 2004–2007,” Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, France, 2011.
  2. Burgeap, “Evaluation des risques sanitaires liés aux rejets atmosphériques de la Z.I. de Lacq,” 2007.
  3. Burgeap, “Evaluation des risques sanitaires liés aux rejets de la zone industrielle de Lavéra-Mède,” 2010.
  4. P. Zambon, P. Ricci, E. Bovo et al., “Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy),” Environmental Health, vol. 6, article 19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Biggeri, F. Barbone, C. Lagazio, M. Bovenzi, and G. Stanta, “Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste, Italy: spatial analysis of risk as a function of distance from sources,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 104, no. 7, pp. 750–754, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. L. Yu, S. F. Wang, P. C. Pan et al., “Residential exposure to petrochemicals and the risk of leukemia: using geographic information system tools to estimate individual-level residential exposure,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 164, no. 3, pp. 200–207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Simonsen, R. Scribner, L. J. Su et al., “Environmental exposure to emissions from petrochemical sites and lung cancer: the lower mississippi interagency cancer study,” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2010, Article ID 759645, 9 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Edwards, T. Pless-Mulloli, D. Howel et al., “Does living near heavy industry cause lung cancer in women? A case-control study using life grid interviews,” Thorax, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1076–1082, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Petrauskaite, G. Pershagen, and R. Gurevičius, “Lung cancer near an industrial site in Lithuania with major emissions of airway irritants,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. F. Lopez-Cima, J. Garcia-Perez, B. Perez-Gomez, N. Aragones, G. Lopez-Abente, A. Tardon et al., “Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study,” International Journal of Health Geographics, vol. 10, article 10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. F. Viel, M. Hägi, E. Upegui, and L. Laurian, “Environmental justice in a French industrial region: are polluting industrial facilities equally distributed?” Health and Place, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 257–262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. S. Bhopal, P. Phillimore, S. Moffatt, and C. Foy, “Is living near a coking works harmful to health? A study of industrial air pollution,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 237–247, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. S. Bhopal, S. Moffatt, T. Pless-Mulloli et al., “Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 812–822, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Wilkinson, B. Thakrar, P. Walls et al., “Lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around all industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 577–580, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Axelsson, L. Barregard, E. Holmberg, and G. Sallsten, “Cancer incidence in a petrochemical industry area in Sweden,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 20, pp. 4482–4487, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. Eitan, Yuval, M. Barchana et al., “Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 20, pp. 4429–4439, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. T. Schechter, W. O. Spitzer, M. E. Hutcheon et al., “Cancer downwind from sour gas refineries: the perception and the reality of an epidemic,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 79, pp. 283–290, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Monge-Corella, J. García-Pérez, N. Aragonés, M. Pollán, B. Pérez-Gómez, and G. López-Abente, “Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 8, article 288, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Pless-Mulloli, P. Phillimore, S. Moffatt et al., “Lung cancer, proximity to industry, and poverty in Northeast England,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 189–196, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. García-Pérez, M. F. López-Cima, E. Boldo et al., “Leukemia-related mortality in towns lying in the vicinity of metal production and processing installations,” Environment International, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 746–753, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. García-Pérez, M. Pollán, E. Boldo et al., “Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, no. 8, pp. 2593–2602, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. García-Pérez, M. F. López-Cima, B. Pérez-Gómez et al., “Mortality due to tumours of the digestive system in towns lying in the vicinity of metal production and processing installations,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 16, pp. 3102–3112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Ramis, E. Vidal, J. García-Pérez et al., “Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models,” BMC Public Health, vol. 9, article 26, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Cambra, T. Martínez-Rueda, E. Alonso-Fustel et al., “Mortality in small geographical areas and proximity to air polluting industries in the Basque Country (Spain),” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 140–147, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Michelozzi, D. Fusco, F. Forastiere, C. Ancona, V. Dell'Orco, and C. A. Perucci, “Small area study of mortality among people living near multiple sources of air pollution,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 611–615, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Pekkanen, E. Pukkala, M. Vahteristo, and T. Vartiainen, “Cancer incidence around an oil refinery as an example of a small area study based on map coordinates,” Environmental Research, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 128–134, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Sans, P. Elliott, I. Kleinschmidt et al., “Cancer incidence and mortality near the Baglan Bay petrochemical works, South Wales,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 217–224, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Y. Yang, B. H. Cheng, T. Y. Hsu, S. S. Tsai, C. F. Hung, and T. N. Wu, “Female lung cancer mortality and sex ratios at birth near a petroleum refinery plant,” Environmental Research, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. J. Pan, Y. J. Hong, G. C. Chang, M. T. Wang, F. F. Cinkotai, and Y. C. Ko, “Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 117–129, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. S. Tsai, M. M. Tiao, H. W. Kuo, T. N. Wu, and C. Y. Yang, “Association of bladder cancer with residential exposure to petrochemical air pollutant emissions in Taiwan,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 53–59, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. F. Viel, C. Daniau, S. Goria et al., “Risk for non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the vicinity of French municipal solid waste incinerators,” Environmental Health, vol. 7, article 51, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Garcia-Perez, E. Boldo, R. Ramis, M. Pollin, B. Perez-Gomez, N. Aragones et al., “Description of industrial pollution in Spain,” BMC Public Health, vol. 7, Article 40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. García-Pérez, E. Boldo, R. Ramis et al., “Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries,” International journal of health geographics, vol. 7, p. 1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Queensland Health, “Health impact assessment—Narangba industrial estate,” 2011.
  35. K. Y. Fung, I. N. Luginaah, and K. M. Gorey, “Impact of air pollution on hospital admissions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada: generating hypotheses in sentinel high-exposure places,” Environmental Health, vol. 6, article 18, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Kosatsky, A. Smargiassi, M. Boivin -C, L. Drouin, and I. Fortier, “Évaluation de l'excès de maladies respiratoires dans les secteurs de Pointe-aux-Trembles/Montréal-Est et Mercier-Est/Anjou,” Canada, 2004.
  37. P. Aylin, A. Bottle, J. Wakefield, L. Jarup, and P. Elliott, “Proximity to coke works and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease in England and Wales,” Thorax, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 228–233, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Patel, M. R. Nellore, H. Sadhu, P. Kulkarni, B. Patel, and D. Parikh, “Effects of industrial pollution on respiratory morbidity among female residents of India,” Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 87–92, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. de Marco, A. Marcon, M. Rava et al., “Proximity to chipboard industries increases the risk of respiratory and irritation symptoms in children: the Viadana study,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 3, pp. 511–517, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Dubnov, M. Barchana, S. Rishpon et al., “Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function,” Environmental Research, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 87–98, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. E. Ginns and A. C. Gatrell, “Respiratory health effects of industrial air pollution: a study in east Lancashire, UK,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 631–635, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. A. Halliday, R. L. Henry, R. G. Hankin, and M. J. Hensley, “Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyper-reactivity near power stations,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 282–286, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Peled, M. Friger, A. Bolotin et al., “Fine particles and meteorological conditions are associated with lung function in children with asthma living near two power plants,” Public Health, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 418–425, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Pignato, M. A. Coniglio, A. Rotondo, and G. Giammanco, “Prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory allergic symptoms in young adults living near a heavy polluted industrial area in Sicily,” Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 40–44, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. Rusconi, D. Catelan, G. Accetta et al., “Asthma symptoms, lung function, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in children exposed to oil refinery pollution,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 84–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Stenlund, E. Lidén, K. Andersson, J. Garvill, and S. Nordin, “Annoyance and health symptoms and their influencing factors: a population-based air pollution intervention study,” Public Health, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 339–345, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. C. L. De Moraes, E. Ignotti, P. A. Netto, L. D. S. V. Jacobson, H. Castro, and S. D. S. Hacon, “Wheezing in children and adolescents living next to a petrochemical plant in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil,” Jornal de Pediatria, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 337–344, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Jadsri, P. Singhasivanon, J. Kaewkungwal, R. Sithiprasasna, S. Siriruttanapruk, and S. Konchom, “Spatio-temporal effects of estimated pollutants released from an industrial estate on the occurrence of respiratory disease in Maptaphut Municipality, Thailand,” International Journal of Health Geographics, vol. 5, article 48, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. C. Câra, F. Buntinx, M. Van den Akker, G. J. Dinant, and C. Manolovici, “Industrial air pollution and children's respiratory health: a natural experiment in Cǎlǎrasi,” European Journal of General Practice, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 135–143, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Pless-Mulloli, C. E. Dunn, R. Bhopal, P. Phillimore, S. Moffatt, and J. Edwards, “Is it feasible to construct a community profile of exposure to industrial air pollution?” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 542–549, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. Pless-Mulloli, D. Howel, and H. Prince, “Prevalence of asthma and other respiratory symptoms in children living near and away from opencast coal mining sites,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 556–563, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Smargiassi, T. Kosatsky, J. Hicks et al., “Risk of asthmatic episodes in children exposed to sulfur dioxide stack emissions from a refinery point source in Montreal, Canada,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 653–659, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. Howel, T. Pless-Mulloli, and R. Darnell, “Consultations of children living near open-cast coal mines,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 567–571, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. White, J. teWaterNaude, W. A. van der, G. Ravenscroft, W. Roberts, and R. Ehrlich, “Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study,” Environmental Health, vol. 8, no. 1, article 45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. A. Wichmann, A. Müller, L. E. Busi et al., “Increased asthma and respiratory symptoms in children exposed to petrochemical pollution,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 632–638, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Yogev-Baggio, H. Bibi, J. Dubnov, K. Or-Hen, R. Carel, and B. A. Portnov, “Who is affected more by air pollution-Sick or healthy? Some evidence from a health survey of schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Northern Israel,” Health and Place, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 399–408, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. Aungudornpukdee, N. Vichit-Vadakan, and S. Taneepanichskul, “Factors related to short-term memory dysfunction in children residing near a petrochemical industrial estate,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 285–292, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. O. Atari, I. N. Luginaah, and K. Fung, “The relationship between odour annoyance scores and modelled ambient air pollution in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 2655–2675, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Pless-Mulloli, D. Howel, A. King et al., “Living near opencast coal mining sites and children's respiratory health,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 145–151, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Hodgson, M. J. Nieuwenhuijsen, P. Elliott, and L. Jarup, “Kidney disease mortality and environmental exposure to mercury,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 72–77, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. Sarov, Y. Bentov, E. Kordysh et al., “Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park,” Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Dolk, B. Thakrar, P. Walls et al., “Mortality among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Hodgson, M. J. Nieuwenhuijsen, A. Hansell et al., “Excess risk of kidney disease in a population living near industrial plants,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 717–719, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Triolo, A. Binazzi, P. Cagnetti et al., “Air pollution impact assessment on agroecosystem and human health characterisation in the area surrounding the industrial settlement of Milazzo (Italy): a multidisciplinary approach,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 140, no. 1–3, pp. 191–209, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Y. Yang, C. C. Chang, H. Y. Chuang, C. K. Ho, T. N. Wu, and P. Y. Chang, “Increased risk of preterm delivery among people living near the three oil refineries in Taiwan,” Environment International, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 337–342, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Y. Yang, H. F. Chiu, S. S. Tsai, C. C. Chang, and H. Y. Chuang, “Increased risk of preterm delivery in areas with cancer mortality problems from petrochemical complexes,” Environmental Research, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 195–200, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y. Bentov, E. Kordysh, R. Hershkovitz et al., “Major congenital malformations and residential proximity to a regional industrial park including a national toxic waste site: an ecological study,” Environmental Health, vol. 5, article 8, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. D. Brender, F. B. Zhan, L. Suarez, P. H. Langlois, and K. Moody, “Maternal residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and oral clefts in offspring,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 565–572, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. D. Brender, L. Suarez, P. H. Langlois, M. Steck, F. B. Zhan, and K. Moody, “Are maternal occupation and residential proximity to industrial sources of pollution related?” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 834–839, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. D. Brender, F. B. Zhan, P. H. Langlois, L. Suarez, and A. Scheuerle, “Residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and chromosomal anomalies in offspring,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 211, no. 1-2, pp. 50–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. Y. Yang, B. H. Cheng, T. Y. Hsu, H. Y. Chuang, T. N. Wu, and P. C. Chen, “Association between petrochemical air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Taiwan,” Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 461–465, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. D. Boardman, L. Downey, J. S. Jackson, J. B. Merrill, J. M. S. Onge, and D. R. Williams, “Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress,” Population and Environment, vol. 30, no. 1-2, pp. 3–25, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. L. Downey and M. Van Willigen, “Environmental stressors: the mental health impacts of living near industrial activity,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 289–305, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Bush, S. Moffatt, and C. Dunn, “'Even the birds round here cough': stigma, air pollution and health in Teesside,” Health and Place, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. Barregard, M. Horvat, B. Mazzolai et al., “Urinary mercury in people living near point sources of mercury emissions,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 368, no. 1, pp. 326–334, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y. Choi, D. Shin, S. Park, Y. Chung, and M. Kim, “Biological monitoring of benzene in residents living near petrochemical industrial areas in Korea,” Journal of Occupational Health, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. Pless-Mulloli, R. Edwards, D. Howel, R. Wood, O. Paepke, and T. Herrmann, “Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 895–901, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. D. K. Thomas, S. Hodgson, M. Nieuwenhuiljsen, and L. Jarup, “Early kidney damage in a population exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 181–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Sala, J. Sunyer, R. Otero, M. Santiago-Silva, C. Camps, and J. Grimalt, “Organochlorine in the serum of inhabitants living near an electrochemical factory,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 152–158, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. Stroh, T. Lundh, A. Oudin, S. Skerfving, and U. Strömberg, “Geographical patterns in blood lead in relation to industrial emissions and traffic in Swedish children, 1978–2007,” BMC Public Health, vol. 9, article 225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. M. Williamson, M. C. White, C. Poole, D. Kleinbaum, R. Vogt, and K. North, “Evaluation of serum immunoglobulins among individuals living near six superfund sites,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 1065–1071, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. Phillimore, “Uncertainty, reassurance and pollution: the politics of epidemiology in Teesside,” Health and Place, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 203–212, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. Phillimore and S. Moffatt, “‘If we have wrong perceptions of our area, we cannot be surprised if others do as well.’ Representing risk in Teesside's environmental politics,” Journal of Risk Research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 171–184, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Goria, “Les études locales autour d'un point source. Les différentes méthodes statistiques, leurs avantages et leurs inconvénients,” Note méthodologique, Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, France, 2010.
  85. S. Hodgson, M. J. Nieuwenhuijsen, R. Colvile, and L. Jarup, “Assessment of exposure to mercury from industrial emissions: comparing “distance as a proxy” and dispersion modelling approaches,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 380–388, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus