Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

Table 1

Summary of cobenefits studies in transport area.

ReferenceStudy designMethodological of modelingResults
Author, year, study sites ScenariosEnvironment impact assessmentHealth impact assessmentEconomic impact assessment Main finding
Method/toolsIndicatorsKey parameters resourceMethod/toolsIndicatorsKey parameters resourceMethod/toolsIndicatorsKey parameters resource

Woodcock et al. (2009)
[11]
London, UK, and Delhi, India
BAU 2030
Lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles
(more efficient engines and fuels switching)
Increased active travel
(increasing walking and cycling)

Towards
sustainable transport
(lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles and increased
active transport scenarios)
London:
ERG Emissions Toolkit
ADMS 4

OSPM
v5.0.64

Delhi:
SIM-air Version 1.3
Annual mean PM10 and PM2.5
concentrations
London:
LAEI 2006
Delhi:
inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India
CRAAnnual preventable DALYs of
cardio-respiratory
lung cancer,acute
respiratory infections
(air pollution reduction),
diabetes,
dementia,
hypertensive heart disease,
cerebrovascular disease,
breast cancer,
colorectal cancer,
depression
(increased physical activity)
Global Burden of Disease Database
Meta-analyses from an exhaustive literature review
London:
London-area travel demand models
London Area Travel Survey
Delhi:
World Health Survey 2000
London:
60% reduction in transport CO2 emissions from the
1990 levels;
7439 DALYs per million population would be avoided
(towards sustainable transport scenarios)
Delhi:
199% increase in CO2 emissions from 1990;
12 995 DALYs per million population would be avoided
(towards sustainable transport scenarios)

Lindsay et al. (2011) [12]
Auckland, New Zealand
Moving short urban trips (<7 km) from cars to bicycles by 1%, 5%, 10%, and 30%VEPM version 2.3 vehicle emissions
per km for CO, CO2, , VOC, and PM10
HAPiNZ studyHEATAnnual reduction in deaths
Energy expenditure
New Zealand Household Travel Survey
HAPiNZ study
HEATValue of Statistical Life
Fuel savings ($NZ)
HAPiNZ study
Ministry of Transport’s Value of Statistical Life
Shifting 5% of vehicle kilometers to cycling would
save 22 million liters of fuel;
reduce transport-
related GHGs by 0.4%;
avoide 122 deaths
annually due to increased physical
activity and local air pollution reduction;
save $200 million per year from health effect

Rojas-Rueda et al. (2012)
[13]
Greater Barcelona
metropolitan area
BAU
Replacing car trips (20%, 40%) by bicycle

Replacing car trips (20%, 40%) by public transport (bus, tram, train, and metro)

Replacing car trips (20%, 40%) by bicycle and public transport
Barcelona Air-Dispersion
Model
PM2.5  concentration
CO2 emission
Barcelona City  council report 2009
Local transportation departments
RR functions
in PM2.5
HEAT
All-cause mortalityDaily Mobility Survey of Catalonia
Daily Mobility Survey of Catalonia
Statistical
Institute of Catalonia
Published literature
A shifting of 40% car trips to cycling and public transport would
avoid 98.5 deaths in total;
reduce 203, 251  /CO2 emissions per year

Grabow et al.
(2012) [14]
Midwestern United States
Replacing short car trips (≤8 km round trip) in urban areas by bicycle Community Multiscale Air Quality Model version 4.6
BenMAP version 4.0.35
Mean annual PM2.5 and O3 concentration 2001 National Emissions Inventory
US EPA
BenMAP
HEAT
Mortalities of
asthma,
chronic bronchitis,
respiratory problems,
cardiovascular problems,
work-loss days,
acute respiratory symptoms,
ER visits,
mortality,
HA (respiratory
school-loss days
worker productivity), (air pollution reduction),
All-cause mortality
(increased physical activity)
1996 National Health Interview Survey
Published literature
US EPA
BenMAP
HEAT
Cost savingsUS EPAEliminating short car trips and completing 50% of them by bicycle would
decline mean annual PM2.5 by 0.1 μg/m3;decline mortality by 1,295 deaths/year in 31.3 million people because of improved air quality and increased exercise;
combine benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year

Maizlish et al.
(2013) [15]
San Francisco Bay Area
BAU 2035
Low-carbon driving
(increased hybrid
vehicles and light-duty diesel, biofuel, and electric vehicles)

Active transport
(50% of BAU miles travelled in car trips less
than 1.5 miles are walked and 50% of BAU
miles travelled in car trips 1.5 to 5 miles are by
bicycle)
EMFAC2007
BAAQMD air
shed model
CO2 emissions
Annual PM2.5 concentration
California Air Resources Board
Bay Area
Air Quality Management District
CRALung cancer,
respiratory disease,
(air pollution reduction)
Annual preventable DALYs of cardiovascular diseases,
colon cancer,
breast cancer,
diabetes,
dementia
(increased physical activity)
Global Burden of Disease
Database
2000 Bay Area
Travel Survey
Meta-analyses
Increasing active transport scenario would
reduce 5952 DALYs per million people in total;
increase the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYs);
decrease GHGE by 14%
Low-carbon driving scenario would
reduce 31 DALYs per million people in total;
reduce GHGE by 33.5%

BAU: business as usual.
ERG: Environmental Research Group.
ADMS: Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System.
OSPM: operational Street Pollution Model.
SIM-air: Simple Interactive Models for better air quality.
LAEI: The London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory.
DALY: The disability-adjusted life year.
VEPM: Vehicle Emissions Prediction Model.
HAPiNZ: Application of Health and Pollution in New Zealand.
HEAT: Health Economic Assessment Tool.
BenMAP: Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program.
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.
EMFAC: Emission Factors model.
BAAQMD: Bay Area Air Quality Management District.

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