Table 1: Summary of main obesogen chemicals and their health effects.

Chemicals1st authorSt.yrGe.LocSample sizeStudy populationCharacteristicsUsesMechanismsHuman effectsAnimal effects

Phytoestrogens
(genistein and daidzein)
Miriam J. J. de Kleijn [21] 20021971USA520930–59 yIncluded in various food and food supplements, in particular soy productHigh doses inhibited adipose deposition but at low doses similar to those found in Western and Eastern diets, in soy milk, or in food supplements containing soy, it induced adipose tissue deposition especially in males

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)Frank D. Gilliland [24]1985–1989USA115Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases PPAR-dependent lipid mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, and adipose tissue atrophy during periods of experimental exposure. PFOA probably exerts anorexigenic effects through a central hypothalamic mechanism that triggers a decrease in food intake in adult rodents

Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs)Sakr,CarineJ [23] 200720071025Agonists for one or more of the PPARs, providing a mechanistic link to disturbed lipid and steroid metabolism

PhtalatesElizabeth E Hatch [22] 20081999–2002USA4369 participants6–80 yAs plasticizers and stabilizers in a variety of plastics. They are found in industrial paints and solvents but also in cosmetics, perfumes, and medicinesPPARα, PPARγ, ER, and peptidergic hormones

NonylphenolMei-Lien Chen [19] 20092008Taiwan960Primary and junior high schools

Organotins, as tributyltin chloride (TBT) and bis (triphenyltin) oxideZhenghong Zuo [17] 20112009China32 miceMice, aged 21 days and weighing 10.5–13.5 gTetravalent tin compounds with a variety of mono-, di-, tri-, or tetrasubstituted organic functional groupsAntifouling agents in paints for marine shipping and for a variety of other uses PPARg and RXR have been shown to disrupt normal development and homeostatic controls over adipogenesis and energy balance. suggested an inhibition of adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cells(1) TBT stimulates adipocytes differentiation in vitro and increases adipose mass in vivo in the 3T3-L1 cellsIn-utero studies, showed TBT to accumulate lipids in adipose, testis, and liver tissues in neonate mice. and increasing epididymal adipose mass in adult mice

Bisphenol A (BPA)He-xing Wang1 [15] 20122011China3608–15 yBPA is a small (228 Da) molecule which is used as a monomer in polymerization reaction to produce polycarbonate plasticsUsed in food and water containers baby bottles, lining of food and beverage metal cans, medical tubing, epoxy resins, and dental fillingsBPA mimics the actions of E2 on blood glucose homeostasis via two pathways: a rapid pathway involving ncmER and a prolonged pathway involving ER. It inhibits adiponectin release and stimulates release of IL-6 and TNFα. mouse triggers 3T3-L1 cells (fibroblasts that can differentiate into adipocytes) to differentiate into adipocytes. Suppression of adiponectin and increased IL-6 and TNFαThere has been no information on BPA effects on human adipocytesMice treated with low doses of E2 or BPA showed rapid increases in insulin release and reduced plasma glucose. High dose for 15 d reduction in body weight. 3 m did not alter body weight and fat depot