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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2014, Article ID 408275, 3 pages
Research Article

Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur

Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 13 April 2014; Accepted 13 July 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar

Copyright © 2014 Normah Awang and Farhana Jamaluddin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol ) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g–7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of and were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g–32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than . The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as , , , , and , were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.