Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Patterns of Exposure to Multiple Metals and Associations with Neurodevelopment of Preschool Children from Montevideo, Uruguay

Table 4

Associations between multiple-metal exposure and raw developmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III.

OutcomeCluster 2
“Low-to-moderate metal exposure”
  ± SE
Cluster 3
“High lead and cadmium”
  ± SE
Cluster 4
“High metal exposure”
  ± SE

Complete-case analysis1,2,3
 Cognitive scale−1.42 ± 1.95−1.27 ± 2.761.64 ± 3.83
 Expressive vocabulary scale−1.13 ± 2.530.48 ± 3.583.96 ± 4.97
 Receptive vocabulary scale−0.32 ± 2.332.28 ± 3.306.70 ± 4.56
Imputed-data analysis1,2,3
 Cognitive scale0.35 ± 2.681.72 ± 3.355.10 ± 16.23
 Expressive vocabulary scale2.24 ± 4.894.54 ± 4.950.59 ± 24.08
 Receptive vocabulary scale1.34 ± 4.043.87 ± 3.9112.07 ± 25.85

Sample size was 47–49 for complete-case analysis and 92 for models with imputed data; 2cluster 1 (“Low metal exposure”) served as the reference group; 3models adjusted for child age in months, maternal IQ and depressive scores, household density, HOME score, socioeconomic status, tester, and the child’s hemoglobin value.