Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2016 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Airborne Infectious Agents and Other Pollutants in Automobiles for Domestic Use: Potential Health Impacts and Approaches to Risk Mitigation

Table 3

Types of microbial pathogens and their possible sources in the family car.

TypeExamplesPossible source(s)

Vegetative bacteriaLegionella pneumophila; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant ones)Biofilms, human occupants, dust, heating/cooling systems, windshield washer fluid, and splashes from road puddles
MycobacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium aviumHuman occupants and biofilms
Bacterial sporesBacillus subtilis; B. cereus; Clostridium difficileRoad dust, upholstery, heating/cooling systems, carpets, human occupants, and pets
Fungi & fungal sporesAspergillus niger; Candida albicansRoad dust, upholstery, heating/cooling systems, carpets, human occupants, and pets
VirusesNoroviruses; rhinoviruses; influenza viruses; rotavirusesHuman occupants, pets & animal (chickens, pigs) cargo

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