Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950–2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities

Table 1

Age-adjusted all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality rates per 100,000 population and relative risk (RR) of mortality among those aged ≥25 years by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and poverty status: 1979–1998 National Longitudinal Mortality Study.

Age-adjusted mortality Age-adjusted mortality Age-adjusted mortality
RateSERRRateSERRRateSERR

All cancers combined, maleAll cancers combined, femaleLung cancer, male

Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White355.672.531.00230.371.751.00116.791.421.00
 Non-Hispanic Black471.6610.061.33274.136.051.19146.185.501.25
 American Indian/Alaska Native334.7031.370.94255.3522.741.11119.4918.551.02
 Asian/Pacific Islander229.7614.000.65144.9810.420.6355.266.800.47
 Mexican American261.3713.350.73150.758.600.6565.236.810.56
 Other Hispanic241.5513.140.68141.488.140.6157.636.140.49
Educational attainment (years) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education < 0.01)
 <12418.154.141.57251.183.051.23153.052.532.36
 12351.494.441.32228.322.591.12111.672.381.72
 13–15334.576.921.26218.204.301.0795.403.531.47
 16+265.885.341.00204.404.661.0064.942.561.00
Poverty status1 ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.01)
  <100%425.928.011.43264.014.601.26151.814.821.83
  100–150%418.247.991.40245.025.061.17146.934.831.77
  150–200%396.537.471.33235.064.931.12138.874.441.67
  200–400%360.043.991.21225.602.741.08115.512.201.39
  400–600%320.145.351.07216.113.901.0399.992.861.20
  Above 600%298.196.151.00208.974.601.0083.043.061.00

Lung cancer, femaleColorectal cancer, maleColorectal cancer, female

Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White51.680.831.0038.770.841.0026.670.581.00
 Non-Hispanic Black56.812.761.1041.662.991.0734.352.141.29
 American Indian/Alaska Native44.159.480.8529.189.640.7531.988.131.20
 Asian/Pacific Islander26.674.550.5229.855.050.7713.073.260.49
 Mexican American19.453.150.3824.114.000.6216.222.880.61
 Other Hispanic19.193.000.3721.323.910.5513.232.500.50
Educational attainment (years) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education > 0.05)
 <1258.821.511.8340.811.251.5329.210.951.16
 1252.841.221.6540.111.521.5125.910.891.03
 13–1546.061.981.4437.272.331.4024.451.460.97
 16+32.081.871.0026.651.701.0025.121.671.00
Poverty status1 ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.01)
  <100%58.972.241.2839.542.411.2429.591.441.29
  100–150%54.192.431.1741.592.471.3129.301.621.28
  150–200%49.282.261.0741.122.391.2928.201.631.23
  200–400%48.831.271.0639.081.331.2325.750.931.12
  400–600%48.701.801.0537.161.881.1726.051.391.13
  Above 600%46.182.131.0031.772.051.0022.961.561.00

Prostate cancerBreast cancer, femaleCervical cancer

Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White44.430.931.0041.720.761.003.910.241.00
 Non-Hispanic Black97.314.772.1946.832.511.128.711.082.23
 American Indian/Alaska Native43.1112.000.9735.798.140.866.143.091.57
 Asian/Pacific Islander22.384.810.5017.773.510.430.970.690.25
 Mexican American38.045.470.8625.813.280.624.421.421.13
 Other Hispanic42.036.000.9524.233.280.585.501.561.41

Prostate cancerBreast cancer, femaleCervical cancer

Educational attainment (years) ( for education > 0.05) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education < 0.05)
 <1249.501.291.0339.761.300.896.760.582.49
 1243.491.740.9141.581.110.933.870.341.42
 13–1548.182.921.0042.241.860.942.760.461.01
 >1647.972.491.0044.882.121.002.720.531.00
Poverty status1 ( for income > 0.05) ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.01)
  <100%45.362.510.9544.841.981.138.340.904.39
  100–150%49.932.521.0441.392.221.046.290.883.31
  150–200%47.622.530.9942.702.171.084.990.792.63
  200–400%49.601.581.0341.781.191.053.880.362.04
  400–600%43.902.220.9238.861.640.982.610.421.37
  Above 600%47.952.781.0039.691.981.001.900.451.00

Stomach cancer, maleStomach cancer, femaleLiver & IBD cancer, male

Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White9.840.421.004.750.241.006.410.331.00
 Non-Hispanic Black20.152.092.058.621.071.818.871.371.38
 American Indian/Alaska Native11.585.231.185.082.931.073.922.770.61
 Asian/Pacific Islander23.834.562.4214.833.233.1222.194.103.46
 Mexican American12.982.781.329.902.252.0812.212.771.90
 Other Hispanic15.183.451.545.871.721.248.882.441.39
Educational attainment (years) ( for education < 0.05) ( for education > 0.05) ( for education > 0.05)
 <1214.500.761.927.380.511.748.470.601.34
 129.150.701.214.850.381.146.600.611.05
 13–158.981.121.193.800.570.897.981.041.27
 16+7.560.921.004.250.681.006.300.761.00
Poverty status1 ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.05) ( for income > 0.05)
  <100%14.001.441.656.470.691.2010.471.271.43
  100–150%13.891.411.646.640.811.248.431.161.15
  150–200%11.941.301.416.030.791.127.461.051.02
  200–400%11.610.711.375.390.421.006.740.530.92
  400–600%7.690.820.914.180.570.786.290.720.86
  Above 600%8.461.031.005.370.751.007.340.901.00

Liver & IBD cancer, femaleEsophageal cancer, maleEsophageal cancer, female

Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White2.930.191.008.650.391.002.240.171.00
 Non-Hispanic Black4.880.811.6717.161.871.985.310.832.37
 American Indian/Alaska Native6.753.952.305.684.130.662.292.291.02
 Asian/Pacific Islander4.691.821.605.151.950.600.610.610.27
 Mexican American4.351.501.486.512.080.750.490.490.22
 Other Hispanic7.111.802.437.322.200.852.281.031.02
Educational attainment (years) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education < 0.01) ( for education > 0.05)
 <124.200.401.8410.220.671.893.020.341.24
 123.130.301.3710.130.711.882.250.260.93
 13–153.080.521.358.010.981.482.760.491.14
 16+2.280.501.005.400.671.002.430.521.00
Poverty status1 ( for income < 0.01) ( for income < 0.01) ( for income > 0.05)
  <100%4.520.591.9113.771.481.903.390.551.22
  100–150%5.250.742.229.591.271.322.670.500.96
  150–200%3.440.581.4510.721.241.483.320.601.19
  200–400%2.770.311.178.850.611.222.120.260.76
  400–600%2.830.451.197.420.751.022.190.400.78
  Above 600%2.370.491.007.240.871.002.790.541.00

Mortality rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. . Defined as a ratio of family income to poverty threshold.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.