Table 2: Estimated exposure doses of EcoSan sludge.

Exposure routeHow people may get exposedHow much and for how longEstimated exposure days in a yearEstimated dose range in g per yearEstimated average doses in g per year
FAUDDTFAUDDTFAUDDT

InhalationInhalation through aerosol in the air while walking outside where humus is stored, farming, emptying, and application in the field0.1 g maximum per day for 6 months in a year, approximately 5 and 3 days a week in rural (FA) and periurban areas (UDDT), respectively120720–60–3.63.01.8

IngestionAccidental ingestion during pit emptying, transportation, application in the field without personal protection, and limited hand washing and through water and food contaminationEstimated at 0.1 g maximum per day for 4 days a year440–0.40–0.40.20.2

Dermal contactSkin contact through bare feet around household where humus is stored, emptying, and transportation and during application in the fieldEstimated at 0.3 g maximum per day for 6 months in a year, approximately 5 and 3 days a week in rural (FA) and periurban areas (UDDT), respectively120720–360–21.618.010.8