Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Letter to the Editor
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2018, Article ID 7910754, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7910754
Research Article

Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor

1Children with Cancer UK, 51 Great Ormond Street, London, WC1N 3JQ, UK
2Powerwatch, Cambridgeshire, UK
3Professor Emeritus, University of Bristol, UK
4Professor Emeritus, Vice–Chancellor’s Office, University of Sunderland, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Alasdair Philips; ku.gro.recnachtiwnerdlihc@spilihp.riadsala

Received 19 December 2017; Revised 14 March 2018; Accepted 21 March 2018; Published 24 June 2018

Academic Editor: Evelyn O. Talbott

Copyright © 2018 Alasdair Philips et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. L. Bondy, M. E. Scheurer, B. Malmer et al., “Brain tumor epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium,” Cancer, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1953–1968, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Van Deventer, E. Van Rongen, and R. Saunders, “WHO research agenda for radiofrequency fields,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 417–421, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. “IARC – International Classification of Diseases of Oncology – ICD-O-3,” http://codes.iarc.fr/abouticdo.php.
  4. D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger et al., “The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 803–820, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler et al., “WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. 4th (rev),” in IARC, ISBN–10 9283244923, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  6. UK Office for National Statistics, “Cancer Statistics: Registrations Series MB1,” 2017, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/2015#data-quality.
  7. UK Office for National Statistics, “Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland,” 2017, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates.
  8. A. Brodbelt, D. Greenberg, T. Winters, M. Williams, S. Vernon, and V. P. Collins, “Glioblastoma in England: 2007–2011,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 533–542, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Q. T. Ostrom, H. Gittleman, J. Fulop et al., “CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the united states in 2008-2012,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 17, Supplement 4, pp. iv1–iv62, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. European Union, “European Standard Population,” http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-RA-13-028.
  11. H. Ohgaki and P. Kleihues, “The definition of primary and secondary glioblastoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 764–772, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. UK Office for National Statistics, “<1971–1994 8290769_tcm77–395904.xls>,” downloaded from the ONS, 26th September, and for 1995–2013 data, Table 13 in https://www.ons.gov.uk/file?uri=/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/datasets/cancerregistrationstatisticscancerregistrationstatisticsengland/2015/cancerregistrations2015final22.05.2017.xls downloaded from the ONS, 10th July 2017.
  13. M. Dobes, V. G. Khurana, and B. Shadbolt, “Increasing incidence of glioblastoma multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of Schwannoma (2000–2008): findings of a multicenter Australian study,” Surgical Neurology International, vol. 2, no. 176, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Dobes, B. Shadbolt, V. G. Khurana et al., “A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000-2008),” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 783–790, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. De Vocht, “Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls,” Environment International, vol. 97, pp. 100–107, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. De Vocht, “Corrigendum to “Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls. [Environ. Int. (2016), 97, 100-107],” Environment International, vol. 101, pp. 201-202, 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017301241. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. G. Zada, A. E. Bond, Y.-P. Wang, S. L. Giannotta, and D. Deapen, “Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992–2006,” World Neurosurgery, vol. 77, no. 3-4, pp. 518–524, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. K. Y. Ho, J. C. Reijneveld, R. H. Enting et al., “Changing incidence and improved survival of gliomas,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 2309–2318, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Clinical Coding toolbox, “UK Health and Social Care Information Centre,” 2015, https://web.archive.org/web/20160723115526/http://systems.hscic.gov.uk:80/data/clinicalcoding/codingadvice/toolbox.
  20. G. P. Dunn, M. L. Rinne, and J. Wykosky, “Emerging insights into the molecular and cellular basis of glioblastoma,” Genes & Development, vol. 26, pp. 756–784, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. H. Ohgaki and P. Kleihues, “Genetic alterations and signaling pathways in the evolution of gliomas,” Cancer Science, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 2235–2241, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis et al., “The epidemiology of glioma in adults: A state of the science review,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 896–913, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. L. Preston, E. Ron, S. Tokuoka et al., “Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors:1958–1998,” Radiation Research, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 1–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  25. Z. J. Andersen, M. Pedersen, G. Weinmayr et al., “Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE),” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 420–432, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. T. N. Seyfried, “Cancer as a mitochondrial metabolic disease,” Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 3, 43 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. G. Abdelwahab, K. E. Fenton, M. C. Preul et al., “The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e36197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. N. Seyfried, R. E. Flores, A. M. Poff, and D. P. D'Agostino, “Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 515–527, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. IARC, Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Non–Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low–Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields, vol. 80, 2002.
  30. IARC, Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, NonIonizing Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, vol. 102, 2013.
  31. P. J. Villeneuve, D. A. Agnew, K. C. Johnson et al., “Brain cancer and occupational exposure to magnetic fields among men: Results from a Canadian population-based case-control study,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 210–217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Hardell and M. Carlberg, “Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma—analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009,” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Wild, IARC Report to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) on the Interphone Study, WHO, IARC, Lyon, France, 03 October 2011.
  34. N. D. Volkow, D. Tomasi, G.-J. Wang et al., “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 8, pp. 808–813, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus