Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Increased Outdoor PM2.5 Concentration Is Associated with Moderate/Severe Anemia in Children Aged 6–59 Months in Lima, Peru

Table 1

Characteristics of the study population, 2012–2016.

CharacteristicsNo anemiaMild anemiaModerate/severe anemia
(n = 84152)(n = 42894)(n = 12322)

Age (months)
 6–1131182 (37.1)23799 (55.5)7588 (61.6)
 12–3541869 (49.7)17263 (40.2)4426 (35.9)
 36–5911101 (13.2)1832 (4.3)308 (2.5)
Gender (%)
 Male41824 (49.7)21899 (51.1)6739 (54.7)
 Female42328 (50.3)20995 (48.9)5583 (45.3)
Weight (kg) (mean ± SD)11.1 ± 2.96a9.96 ± 2.199.69 ± 2.01
Stunting (%)3865 (4.59)b2015 (4.70)652 (5.29)
Hemoglobin (g/dL) (mean ± SD)11.75 ± 0.67a10.47 ± 0.309.39 ± 0.83
PM2.5 (μg/m3) (mean ± SD)23.8 ± 6.47c23.9 ± 6.4124.0 ± 6.41
Poverty17.5 ± 6.9d17.6 ± 6.817.5 ± 6.5

Values are frequencies and percentage (%) or mean ± SD. Comparison is between no anemia vs. mild and moderate/severe anemia. Chi-square test: , no anemia vs mild and moderate/severe anemia. ANOVA: , no anemia vs mild and moderate/severe anemia. Chi-square test: , no anemia vs moderate/severe anemia. Wilcoxon: , no anemia vs mild and moderate/severe anemia. ANOVA: , no anemia vs mild anemia.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19.