Interventions to Increase Blood Donation among Ethnic/Racial Minorities: A Systematic Review
Classification of blood donation recruitment and retention interventions (adapted from Godin et al. ).
Type of intervention
Interventions aimed at increasing motivation toward blood donation
Interventions targeting psychosocial cognitions related to motivation, such as social norms, attitudes, and barriers
Interventions using the foot-in-the-door, the door-in-the-face, or a combination of both techniques to motivate individuals to give blood. Foot-in-the-door involves asking a small request that should be accepted and then asking a critical large request. Door-in-the-face involves asking a large request that should be refused and then asking a critical small request
Interventions using altruistic motives to motivate individuals to give blood
Interventions showing another person giving blood to motivate individuals to give blood
Interventions using direct requests or reminders about the next eligibility date and/or the next appointment to give blood (e.g., telephone call prompt)
Measurement of cognitions
Interventions using the completion of a questionnaire about the intention to give blood to activate cognitions about blood donation (e.g., question-behaviour effect)
Interventions using incentives for donating blood such as a T-shirt, money, prizes, tickets, and other
Preventing vasovagal reactions
Interventions to avoid dizziness and fainting, including applied muscle tension during donation, predonation salt loading, on-site stomach distension with liquids, donor distraction techniques, more stringent estimated blood volume requirements for donors under age 23, salty postdonation snacks, intensive education for individuals with higher fear scores
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