Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Interventions to Increase Blood Donation among Ethnic/Racial Minorities: A Systematic Review

Table 1

Classification of blood donation recruitment and retention interventions (adapted from Godin et al. [16]).

Type of interventionDefinition

MotivationalInterventions aimed at increasing motivation toward blood donation
 Cognitions-basedInterventions targeting psychosocial cognitions related to motivation, such as social norms, attitudes, and barriers
 Foot-in-the door/door-in-the-faceInterventions using the foot-in-the-door, the door-in-the-face, or a combination of both techniques to motivate individuals to give blood. Foot-in-the-door involves asking a small request that should be accepted and then asking a critical large request. Door-in-the-face involves asking a large request that should be refused and then asking a critical small request
 AltruismInterventions using altruistic motives to motivate individuals to give blood
 ModellingInterventions showing another person giving blood to motivate individuals to give blood

Reminders/askingInterventions using direct requests or reminders about the next eligibility date and/or the next appointment to give blood (e.g., telephone call prompt)

Measurement of cognitionsInterventions using the completion of a questionnaire about the intention to give blood to activate cognitions about blood donation (e.g., question-behaviour effect)

IncentivesInterventions using incentives for donating blood such as a T-shirt, money, prizes, tickets, and other

Preventing vasovagal reactionsInterventions to avoid dizziness and fainting, including applied muscle tension during donation, predonation salt loading, on-site stomach distension with liquids, donor distraction techniques, more stringent estimated blood volume requirements for donors under age 23, salty postdonation snacks, intensive education for individuals with higher fear scores

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