Journal of Healthcare Engineering

Journal of Healthcare Engineering / 2010 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 1 |Article ID 764307 | 19 pages | https://doi.org/10.1260/2040-2295.1.3.415

Instrumented Indentation of Lung Reveals Significant Short Term Alteration in Mechanical Behavior with 100% Oxygen

Abstract

In critical care, trauma, or other situations involving reduced lung function, oxygen is given to avoid hypoxia. It is known that under certain conditions and long time (several hours) exposure, oxygen is toxic to the lungs, the possible mechanisms being direct cellular damage or surfactant dysfunction. Our key objective was to investigate possible changes in lung function when exposed to 100% oxygen in the short term (several tidal volumes). We performed mechanical tests on lobar surfaces of excised mammalian lungs inflated with air or 100% oxygen, examining (i) stiffness, (ii) non-linear mechanical response and (iii) induced alveolar deformation. Our results showed that within five tidal volumes of breathing 100% oxygen, lung mechanics are significantly altered. In addition, after five tidal volumes of laboratory air, lung mechanical behavior begins to return to pre-oxygen levels, indicating some reversibility. These significant and short-term mechanical effects of oxygen could be linked to oxygen toxicity.

References

  1. K. F. Udobi, E. Childs, and K. Touijer, “Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome,” Am. Fam. Physician, vol. 67, pp. 315–322, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  2. A. P. Sarnaik, K. M. Daphtary, K. L. Meert, M. W. Lieh-Lai, and S. M. Heidemann, “Pressure-controlled Ventilation in Children with Severe Status Asthmaticus,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med., vol. 5, pp. 133–138, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  3. D. Dreyfuss and G. Saumon, “Ventilator-induced Lung Injury–Lessons from Experimental Studies,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., vol. 157, pp. 294–323, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  4. J. B. West, Respiratory Physiology–The Essentials, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 6th edition, 2000.
  5. S. J. Lai-Fook, T. A. Wilson, R. E. Hyatt, and J. R. Rodarte, “Elastic Constants of Inflated Lobes of Dog Lungs,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 40, pp. 508–513, 1976. View at: Google Scholar
  6. M. A. Hajji, T. A. Wilson, and S. J. Lai-Fook, “Improved Measurements of Shear Modulus and Pleural Membrane Tension of the Lung,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 47, pp. 175–181, 1979. View at: Google Scholar
  7. M. R. Silva, Z. J. Yuan, J. H. Kim et al., “Spherical Indentation of Lungs: Experiments, Modeling and Sub-surface Imaging,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1156–1166, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  8. K. Von Neergaard, “New Opinions About the Fundamentals of Respiratory Mechanics. The Retraction Force of the Lung in Relationship to the Surface Tension within the Alveoles [in German],” Z ges exp Med., vol. 66, pp. 373–394, 1929. View at: Google Scholar
  9. R. Pattle, “Properties, Function and Origin of the Alveolar Lining Layer,” Nature, vol. 175, pp. 1125–1126, 1955. View at: Google Scholar
  10. J. A. Clements, “Surface Tension of Lung Extracts,” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med., vol. 95, pp. 170–172, 1957. View at: Google Scholar
  11. J. R. Bourbon, Pulmonary Surfactant–Biochemical, Functional, Regulatory, and Clinical Concepts, CRC Press, New York, 1st edition, 1991.
  12. F. Bringezu, J. Ding, G. Brezesinski, A. J. Waring, and J. A. Zasadzinski, “Influence of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein B on Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers,” Langmuir, vol. 18, pp. 2319–2325, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  13. Y. Y. Zuo, R. A. W. Veldhuizen, A. W. Neumann, N. O. Petersen, and F. Possmayer, “Current Perspectives in Pulmonary Surfactant–Inhibition, Enhancement and Evaluation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta., vol. 10, pp. 1947–1977, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  14. R. H. Notter, Lung Surfactant: Basic Science and Clinical Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York; Basel, Switzerland, 2000.
  15. A. Popp, M. Wendel, L. Knells, T. Koch, and E. Koch, “Imaging of the Three-Dimensional Alveolar Structure and the Alveolar Mechanics of a Ventilated and Perfused Isolated Rabbit Lung with Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 11, 014015, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  16. N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai et al., “Two-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of the Airway, Lung, and Pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., vol. 129, pp. 615–622, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  17. M. Mertens, A. Tabuchi, S. Meissner et al., “Alveolar Dynamics in Acute Lung Injury: Heterogeneous Distension Rather than Cyclic Recruitment,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 2604–11, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  18. S. Meissner, L. Knels, A. Krüger, T. Koch, and E. Koch, “Simultaneous 3D Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravital Microscopy for Imaging Subpleural Pulmonary Alveoli in Isolated Rabbit Lungs,” J of Biomed Opt, vol. 14, no. 5, 054020, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  19. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin et al., “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science, vol. 254, pp. 1178–1181, 1991. View at: Google Scholar
  20. H. Hertz, “Uber die Deruhrung Fester Elasticher Korper (On the Contact of Elastic Solids),” J. Reine Ang. Math., vol. 92, pp. 156–171, 1882. View at: Google Scholar
  21. K. Johnson, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1985.
  22. P. Moldeus, G. Bannenberg, and A. Ryrfeldt, “Oxidative Stress in the Lung and Effect on Pulmonary Function,” in Exercise and Oxygen Toxicity, Chandan K. Sen, Lester Packer, and Osmo Hanninen, Eds., pp. 343–357, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  23. D. L. Beckman and H. S. Weiss, “Hyperoxia Compared to Surfactant Washout on Pulmonary Compliance in Rats,” J. Appl. Physiol, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 700–709, 1969. View at: Google Scholar
  24. J. F. Turrens, B. A. Freeman, and J. D. Crapo, “Hyperoxia Increases H2O2 Release by Lung Mitochondria and Microsomes,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 411–421, 1982. View at: Google Scholar
  25. J. E. Repine, “Scientific Perspectives on Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 339, pp. 466–472, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  26. F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, “The Influence of Oxygen upon the Isolated Surfactant Film,” Bull. Eur. Physiopathol. Respir., vol. 14, pp. 131–133, 1978b. View at: Google Scholar
  27. F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, “Influence of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Air and Alveolar Gas upon Surface Tension of Lung Surfactant,” Respir Physiol., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  28. M. A. Krueger and D. P. Gaver III, “ATheoretical Model of Pulmonary Surfactant Multilayer Collapse under Oscillating Area Conditions,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 229, no. 2, pp. 353–364, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  29. K. Rodriguez-Capote, K. D. Manzanarea, T. Haines, and F. Possmayer, “Reactive Oxygen Species Inactivation of Surfactant Involves Structural and Functional Alterations to Surfactant Proteins SP-B and SP-C,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 90, pp. 2808–2821, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  30. N. Gilliard, G. P. Heidt, J. Loredo, H. Redl, T. A. Maerritt, and R. G. Spragg, “Exposure of the Hydrophobic Components of Porcine Lung Surfactant to Oxidant Stress Alters Surface Tension Properties,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 93, pp. 2608–2615, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  31. K. M. S. Dewar, G. Smith, A. A. Spence, and Ledingham I. McA., “Effect of Hyperoxia on Airways Resistance in Man,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 32, pp. 486–490, 1972. View at: Google Scholar
  32. F. Wildeboer-Venema, “The Influences of Temperature and Humidity upon the Isolated Surfactant Film of the Dog,” Respir. Physiol., vol. 39, pp. 63–71, 1980. View at: Google Scholar
  33. R. R. Baker, B. A. Holm, P. C. Panus, and S. Matalon, “Development of O2 Tolerance in Rabbits with No Increase in Antioxidant Enzymes,” J. of Appl. Physiol., vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1679–1684, 1989. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

230 Views | 297 Downloads | 5 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.