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Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 2 (2011), Issue 1, Pages 25-41
Research Article

Understanding Contrasting Approaches to Nationwide Implementations of Electronic Health Record Systems: England, the USA and Australia

Zoe Morrison,1 Ann Robertson,1 Kathrin Cresswell,1 Sarah Crowe,2 and Aziz Sheikh1

1eHealth Research Group, Centre for Population Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, UK
2School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK

Received 1 July 2010; Accepted 1 November 2010

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


As governments commit to national electronic health record (EHR) systems, there is increasing international interest in identifying effective implementation strategies. We draw on Coiera's typology of national programmes - ‘top-down’, ‘bottom-up’ and ‘middle-out’ - to review EHR implementation strategies in three exemplar countries: England, the USA and Australia. In comparing and contrasting three approaches, we show how different healthcare systems, national policy contexts and anticipated benefits have shaped initial strategies. We reflect on progress and likely developments in the face of continually changing circumstances. Our review shows that irrespective of the initial strategy, over time there is likely to be convergence on the negotiated, devolved middle-out approach, which aims to balance the interests and responsibilities of local healthcare constituencies and national government to achieve national connectivity. We conclude that, accepting the current lack of empirical evidence, the flexibility offered by the middle-out approach may make this the best initial national strategy.