Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 6 (2015), Issue 3, Pages 419-434
http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/2040-2295.6.3.419
Research Article

Equipment and Energy Usage in a Large Teaching Hospital in Norway

Tarald Rohde1 and Robert Martinez2

1SINTEF, Technology and Society, Hospital Planning, Oslo, Norway
2Norconsult as, Sandvika, Norway

Received 1 October 2014; Accepted 1 April 2015

Copyright © 2015 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. H. Conti, J. A. Beamon, S. Napolitano, M. A. Schaal, T. Turnure James, and L. Westfall, “International Energy Outlook 2013. International Energy Outlook. US Energy Information Administration, Washington, 2013, 300,” http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/.
  2. T. Rohde, R. Martinez, and M. Mysen, “Activity modeling for energy-efficient design of new hospitals,” International Journal of Facility Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2014, http://www.ijfm.net/index.php/ijfm/issue/view/11. View at Google Scholar
  3. “ASHRAE. Advanced Energy Design for Small Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities. R. a. A.C. E. American Society of Heating, ASHRAE, 2011, 180,” https://www.ashrae.org.
  4. R. Saidur, M. Hasanuzzaman, T. M. I. Mahila, N. A. Rahmin, and H. A. Mohammed, “Chillers energy consumption, energy savings and emission analysis in an institutional building,” Energy, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. A. J. Kwatra and H. Sachs, “Miscellaneous Energy Loads in Buildings,” American Council for Energy Economy, Report number A113, Washington, 2013, 79. http://aceee.org/research-report/a133.
  6. T. Rohde, “Energieffektive måter å oppnå funksjonskrav for sykehus,” SINTEF. Oslo, 2012, www.sintef.no.
  7. R. Martinez, T. Rohde, K. Kallmyr et al., “Energibruk i sykehus, status over energikrevende funksjonskrav og faktisk forbruk knyttet til bygg og utstyr og muligheter for effektivisering,” Low Energy Hospitals, NRC, 2011, 138, www.sintef.no.
  8. J. S. Peters, M. Frank, J. Van Clock, and A. Armstrong, “Electronics and Energy Efficiency: A Plug Load Characterization Study,” Research Into Action, Inc. 2010, 254, http://www.calmac.org/publications/.
  9. B. Singer, Hospital Energy Benchmarking Guidelines. LBNL paper nr. 2738E, Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory. 2009, 28, http://energy.lbl.gov/ea/.
  10. K. McKenny, M. Guernsey, R. Ponoum, and J. Rosenfeldt, Commercial Miscellaneous Loads. Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potensial in 2008 by Building Type. U. D. o. E., (DOE). Lexington. TIAX LLC., 2010, 224. http://www.zeroenergycbc.org.
  11. T. Rohde, Brukstid for areal i sykehus. Low Energy Hospitals, NRC. SINTEF, Oslo. 2011, www.sintef.no.
  12. T. A. Nguyen and M. Aiello, “Energy Intelligent Buildings based on User Activity, A Survey,” Energy and Building, vol. 56, pp. 244–257, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  13. N. Standard, Norsk Standard 3031. Standard Norge, 2011, www.standard.no.
  14. GGHC, Green Guide for Healthcare. Version 2.2. 2007, www.gghc.org.
  15. R. Martinez, N. H. Melby, J. Vårdal, P. Hegnedal-Andersen, and T. T. Harsem, “Stricter specification of the energy performance of healthcare equipment can reduce hospital energy consumption,” in Medical Equipment and Trends in Energy Consumption. 4th European Conference on Healthcare Engineering, Norconsult as and Siemens Healthcare, Paris, 2011.
  16. P. S. Agency, Protocol Energy Efficiency Assessment for Electrical Medical Devices, NHS Purchasing and Supply Agency, CEP08037, 2009, http://www.sduhealth.org.uk.
  17. Betterbricks, Energy Efficient Equipment Purchasing Guidelines for Hospitals. T. C. I. o. t. N. E. E. Alliance, Betterbricks. Version 1, 2010, http://www.betterbricks.com.
  18. COUNCIL TEPAT, Establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products. DIRECTIVE, 2009/125/EC. E. EU. Official Journal of the European Union EU, Comission : 24, 2009, http://eur-lex.europa.eu.
  19. T. T. Harsem, Veiledere FOU-prosjekt lavenergi sykehus. Low Energy Hospital Project, NRC, Sandvika, 2014.
  20. R. Martinez, “Balancing Act - Using Hybrid Heat Sources to Avoid Permafrost and Optimize Heat Pump Systems in Cold Climate Hospitals,” in 7th International Cold Climate HVAC Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Norconsult as, 2012.
  21. GE Healthcare and Medical Device Industry Commit to Reducing Energy Use of Ultrasound Products, GE, 2010, http://www.gecitizenship.com.
  22. LEED, Medical and process Equipment Efficiency. U. D. o. Energy, LEED Pilot Credit Library, 2010, http://www.usgbc.org.