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Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 779-790
Research Article

Accuracy of a Dedicated Bone-Supported Surgical Template for Dental Implant Placement with Direct Visual Control

Yi Sun,1 Heinz-Theo Luebbers,2 Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje,1 Liang Kong,3 Serge Schepers,4 Luc Daems,5 Paul Legrand,6 Reinhilde Jacobs,1 Constantinus Politis,1 and Luc Vrielinck4

1OMFS IMPATH research group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven and Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
2Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China
4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Campus St. Jan, Genk, Belgium
5Department of Oral and Maxilllofacial Surgery, ZNA Middelheim, Antwerp, Belgium
6Department of Oral and Maxilllofacial Surgery, Mariaziekenhuis Noord Limburg, Belgium

Received 1 June 2015; Accepted 1 September 2015

Copyright © 2015 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study is to evaluate feasibility and accuracy of dental implant placement utilizing a dedicated bone-supported surgical template. Thirty-eight implants (sixteen in maxilla, twenty-two in mandible) were placed in seven fully edentulous jaws (three maxillae, four mandibles) guided by the designed bone-supported surgical template. A voxel-based registration technique was applied to match pre- and post-operative CBCT scans. The mean angular deviation and mean linear deviation at the implant hex and apex were 6.4 ± 3.7° (0.7° – 14.8°), 1.47 ± 0.64 mm (0.5 – 2.56 mm) and 1.70 ± 1.01 mm (0.71 –4.39 mm), respectively. The presented bone-supported surgical template showed acceptable accuracy for clinical use. In return for reduced accuracy, clinicians gain accessibility when using this type of surgical template for both the maxilla and the mandible. This is particularly important in patients with reduced mouth opening.