Research Article | Open Access
Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time
This paper compares the performance measures of traditional appointment scheduling (AS) with those of an open-access appointment scheduling (OA-AS) system with exponentially distributed service time. A queueing model is formulated for the traditional AS system with no-show probability. The OA-AS models assume that all patients who call before the session begins will show up for the appointment on time. Two types of OA-AS systems are considered: with a same-session policy and with a same-or-next-session policy. Numerical results indicate that the superiority of OA-AS systems is not as obvious as those under deterministic scenarios. The same-session system has a threshold of relative waiting cost, after which the traditional system always has higher total costs, and the same-or-next-session system is always preferable, except when the no-show probability or the weight of patients’ waiting is low. It is concluded that open-access policies can be viewed as alternative approaches to mitigate the negative effects of no-show patients.
- W. Weerawat, J. Pichitlamken, and P. Subsombat, “A generic discrete-event simulation model for outpatient clinics in a large public hospital,” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 285–305, 2013.
- T. Cayirli and E. Veral, “Outpatient scheduling in health care: A review of literature,” Production and Operation Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 519–549, 2003.
- W. Gupta and B. Denton, “Appointment scheduling in health care: Challenges and opportunities,” IIE Transactions, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 800–819, 2008.
- L. LaGanga, “Lean service operations: Reflections and new directions for capacity expansion in outpatient clinics,” Journal of Operations Management, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 422–433, 2011.
- M. M. Rinder, G. Weckman, D. Schwerha et al., “Healthcare scheduling by data mining: Literature review and future directions,” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 477–502, 2012.
- I. Maglogiannis, “Towards the adoption of open source and open access electronic health record systems,” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 141–161, 2012.
- L. LaGanga and S. R. Lawrence, “Appointment overbooking in health care clinics to improve patient service and clinic performance,” Production and Operations Management, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 874–888, 2012.
- Y. Huang and P. Zuniga, “Effective cancellation policy to reduce the negative impact of patient no-show,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 605–615, 2014.
- M. Murray and C. Tantau, “Same-day appointments: Exploding the access paradigm,” Family Practice Management, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 45–50, 2000.
- L. W. Robinson and R. Chen, “A comparison of traditional and open-access policies for appointment scheduling,” Manufacturing and Service Operations Management, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 330–346, 2010.
- R. Hassin and S. Mendel, “Scheduling arrivals to queues: A single-server model with no-shows,” Management Science, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 565–572, 2008.
- J. F. Tang, C. j. Yan, and R. Fung, “Optimal appointment scheduling with no-shows and exponential service time considering overtime work,” Journal of Management Analytics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 99–129, 2014.
- S. Creemers and M. Lambrecht, “An advanced queueing model to analyze appointment-driven service systems,” Computers and Operations Research, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2773–2785, 2009.
- S. Creemers and M. Lambrecht, “Queuing models for appointment-driven systems,” Annals of Operations Research, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 155–172, 2010.
- K. J. Klassen and R. Yoogalingam, “Appointment system design with interruptions and physician lateness,” International Journal of Operations and Production Management, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 394–414, 2013.
- Q. Kong, C. Lee, C. Teo, and Z. Zheng, “Scheduling arrivals to a stochastic service delivery system using copositive cones,” Operations Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 711–726, 2013.
- S. De Vuyst, H. Bruneel, and D. Fiems, “Computationally efficient evaluation of appointment schedules in health care,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 237, no. 3, pp. 1142–1154, 2014.
- H. Mak, Y. Rong, and J. Zhang, “Sequencing appointments for service systems using inventory approximations,” Manufacturing and Service Operations Management, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 251–262, 2014.
- X. Qu and J. Shi, “Effects of two-level provider capacities on the performance of open access clinics,” Health Care Management Science, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 99–114, 2009.
- W. Y. Wang and D. Gupta, “Adaptive appointment systems with patient preferences,” Manufacturing and Service Operations Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 373–389, 2011.
- Y. Huang, P. Zuniga, and J. Marcak, “A cost-effective urgent care policy to improve patient access in a dynamic scheduled clinic setting,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 763–776, 2014.
- T. Cayirli, E. Veral, and H. Rosen, “Designing appointment scheduling systems for ambulatory care services,” Health Care Management Science, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 2006.
- A. Mercer, “A queueing problem in which the arrival times of the customers are scheduled,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 108–113, 1960.
- S. Kim and R. E. Giachetti, “A stochastic mathematical appointment overbooking model for healthcare providers to improve profits,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part A-Systems and Humans, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1211–1219, 2006.
- L. V. Green and S. Savin, “Reducing delays for medical appointments: A queuing approach,” Operations Research, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1526–1538, 2008.
- T. Cayirli, E. Veral, and H. Rosen, “Assessment of patient classification in appointment system design,” Production and Operation Management, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 338–353, 2008.
- S. A. Erdogan and B. Denton, “Dynamic appointment scheduling of a stochastic server with uncertain demand,” Informs Journal on Computing, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 116–132, 2013.
- S. Chakraborty, K. Muthuraman, and M. Lawley, “Sequential clinical scheduling with patient no-shows and general service time distributions,” IIE Transactions, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 354–366, 2010.
- S. Chakraborty, K. Muthuraman, and M. Lawley, “Sequential clinical scheduling with patient no-show: The Impact of Pre-defined Slot Structures,” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 205–219, 2013.
- B. Berg, B. Denton, S. A. Erdogan, and T. Rohleder, “Optimal booking and scheduling in outpatient procedure centers,” Computers and Operations Research, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 24–37, 2014.
- B. Zeng, A. Turkcan, J. Lin, and M. Lawley, “Clinic scheduling models with overbooking for patients with heterogenous no-show probabilities,” Annals of Operations Research, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 121–144, 2010.
- M. A. Begen and M. Queyranne, “Appointment scheduling with discrete random durations,” Mathematics of Operations Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 240–257, 2011.
- C. Ho and H. Lau, “Minimizing total cost in scheduling outpatient appointments,” Management Science, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1750–1764, 1992.
- P. P. Wang, “Static and dynamic scheduling of customer arrivals to a single-server system,” Naval Research Logistics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 345–360, 1993.
- K. J. Klassen and R. Yoogalingam, “An assessment of the interruption level of doctors in outpatient appointment scheduling,” Operational Management Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 95–102, 2008.
- K. J. Klassen and R. Yoogalingam, “Improving performance in outpatient appointment services with a simulation optimization approach,” Production and Operations Management, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 447–458, 2009.
- T. Cayirli, K. K. Yang, and S. A. Quek, “A universal appointment rule in the presence of no-shows and walk-ins,” Production and Operation Management, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 682–697, 2012.
- R. Kopach, P. C. DeLaurentis, M. Lawley et al., “Effects of clinical characteristics on successful open access scheduling,” Health Care Management Science, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 111–124, 2007.
- N. Liu, S. Ziya, and V. G. Kulkarni, “Dynamic scheduling of outpatient appointments under patient no-shows and cancellations,” Manufacturing and Service Operation Management, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 347–364, 2010.
- G. Dobson, S. Hasija, and E. Pinker, “Reserving capacity for urgent patients in primary care,” Production and Operation Management, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 456–473, 2011.
- X. Qu, R. L. Rardin, and J. A. S. Williams, “A mean-variance model to optimize the fixed versus open appointment percentages in open access scheduling systems,” Decision Support System, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 554–564, 2012.
- J. Patrick, “A Markov decision model for determining optimal outpatient scheduling,” Health Care Management Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 91–102, 2012.
- S. Lee, D. Min, J. H. Ryu, and Y. A. Yih, “simulation study of appointment scheduling in outpatient clinics: Open access and overbooking,” Simulation, vol. 89, no. 12, pp. 1459–1473, 2013.
- B. Denton and D. Gupta, “A sequential bounding approach for optimal appointment scheduling,” IIE Transactions, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1003–1016, 2003.
- J. Feldman, N. Liu, H. Topaloglu, and S. Ziya, “Appointment scheduling under patient preference and no-show behavior,” Operations Research, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 794–811, 2014.
- R. Chen and L. Robinson, “Sequencing and scheduling appointments with potential call-in patients,” Production and Operations Management, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1522–1538, 2014.
- H. Balasubramanian, A. Muriel, and L. Wang, “The impact of provider flexibility and capacity allocation on the performance of primary care practices,” Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 422–447, 2012.
Copyright © 2015 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.